Flashcards in Lab Med Deck (48):
Qualitative results indicate....
absent or present
Semi-qualitative results indicate...
Quantitative results indicate...
unit of measurement
nothing by mouth (fasting)
PP or PC means
post-prandial or after eating
closeness or agreement of a measurement o it "true" value
measurement of the reproducibility of a result
-indicates how often false negatives will be encountered (90% sensitive means 10% of results are falsely negative)
-probability to correctly identify those that have the disease
-reflects those with the disease who test positive
-reflects those with the disease that test negative
-indicates how often false positives will be encountered (98% specific means 2% of results are falsely positive)
-probability to correctly identify those who do not have the disease
-reflects those without the disease that test negative
-reflects those without the disease that test positive
tests used to rule out a disease must have high
tests used to rule in or confirm a disease must have high
Blood makes up what % of total body weight and is how many liters?
6-8%, 5 L
Plasma-from anticoagulated blood, has clotting factor, makes up 45-60% of blood volume
Serum-from clotted blood, has no clotting factors
WBCs are produced in the ( ) and live for ( )
bone marrow, 3-4 days
Granulocytes (PMNs) functions
Basophils-rare allergic rxns, release histamine
Neutrophils-acute bacterial, inflammation
-acute viral, certain bacterial
-made up of T/B/NK cells
a left shift indicates....
-acute illness (bacteria, hemorrhage)
-predominance of immature neutrophils
a right shift indicates....
-liver disease, iron deficiency anemia, stress
B cells function
-make antibodies that bind to pathogens
T cells include
CD4+ T cells-helper cells that bind antigens activating B cell antibodies. Used in acute HIV infection to identify immune response
CD8+ cytotoxic cells-kill virus or infected tumor cells
NK cells function
kills cells in body that display sign to kill them, such as cells infected w/virus or cancer
-circulate in blood and enter tissue to become macrophages which are important antigen presenting cells
-phagocytosis, present pieces of pathogens to T cells
-low RBC count, abnormality of RBCs, or abnormal RBCs resulting in low O2 transport capacity
-defined as subnormal Hg level
Hematocrit and avg in men/women
% volume of RBCs in a given volume of blood, around 3x Hgb
Increased hematocrit can be caused from....
Decreased hematocrit can be caused from...
-megaloblastic anemia (B12 deficiency)
-Fe deficiency anemia
-acute/chronic blood loss
Low Hg levels indicate
Hg electrophoresis is a blood test to detect
different Hg types
sickle cell, thalasemmia
Carboxyhemoglobin levels (CO)
non smoker <2%
glycated Hg is proportional to....
blood glucose concentration
MCH (mean cellular/corpuscular Hg)
amount of Hgb in avg RBC
MCHC (mean cellular/corpuscular Hg concentration)
avg concentration of Hgb in a volume of RBCs
MCV (mean cell/corpuscular volume)
avg volume of RBCs
RDW (red cell width)
measure of degree of variation in RBC size
-small RBCs w/low MCV
-Fe deficiency, thalassemia
-normal RBCs w/normal MCV
-anemia of chronic disorder, renal failure, hypothyroid
-large RBCs w/high MCV
-megaloblastic anemia (B12/folate deficiency)
-nonmegaloblastic anemia (liver disease,)
-blood test that measures how fast RBCs are made by bone marrow and released into blood
-rises when there is major blood loss or RBC destruction such as hemolytic anemia
low reticulocyte count indicates (<2%)
low production of RBCs by bone marrow
if you suspect anemia, you first check
if reticulocyte count is high you suspect...
low you check....
-hemolysis, acute blood loss
Total iron binding capacity (TIBC)
-measures proteins in blood that bind w/iron, mainly transferrin, increases when iron is low
Increased TIBC/decreased sat of transferrin indicates
decreased TIBC/increased sat of transferrin indicates
-dx of iron def anemia
-heomchromatosis (excessive Fe storage)
What is the major storage protein for Fe
decreased levels of erythropoietin indicate...
anemia of chronic disease
Fe deficiency anemia
Howell-Jolly bodies are associated w/