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Flashcards in Lab Med Deck (48):
1

Qualitative results indicate....

absent or present

2

Semi-qualitative results indicate...

absent/trace/mod/marked

3

Quantitative results indicate...

unit of measurement

4

NPO means

nothing by mouth (fasting)

5

PP or PC means

post-prandial or after eating

6

accuracy

closeness or agreement of a measurement o it "true" value

7

precision

measurement of the reproducibility of a result

8

seNsitivity
true positive
false negative

-indicates how often false negatives will be encountered (90% sensitive means 10% of results are falsely negative)
-probability to correctly identify those that have the disease
-reflects those with the disease who test positive
-reflects those with the disease that test negative

9

sPecificity
true negative
false positive

-indicates how often false positives will be encountered (98% specific means 2% of results are falsely positive)
-probability to correctly identify those who do not have the disease
-reflects those without the disease that test negative
-reflects those without the disease that test positive

10

tests used to rule out a disease must have high

sensitivity (SNout)

11

tests used to rule in or confirm a disease must have high

specificity (Spin)

12

Blood makes up what % of total body weight and is how many liters?

6-8%, 5 L

13

Plasma vs
Serum

Plasma-from anticoagulated blood, has clotting factor, makes up 45-60% of blood volume
Serum-from clotted blood, has no clotting factors

14

WBCs are produced in the ( ) and live for ( )

bone marrow, 3-4 days

15

Granulocytes (PMNs) functions

Basophils-rare allergic rxns, release histamine
Eosinophils-asthma/allergies/parasitic
Neutrophils-acute bacterial, inflammation

16

Lymphocyte function

-acute viral, certain bacterial
-made up of T/B/NK cells
-lymphoma, leukemia

17

Monocyte function

chronic infections

18

a left shift indicates....

-acute illness (bacteria, hemorrhage)
-predominance of immature neutrophils

19

a right shift indicates....

-chronic illness
-liver disease, iron deficiency anemia, stress

20

B cells function

-make antibodies that bind to pathogens

21

T cells include

CD4+ T cells-helper cells that bind antigens activating B cell antibodies. Used in acute HIV infection to identify immune response
CD8+ cytotoxic cells-kill virus or infected tumor cells

22

NK cells function

kills cells in body that display sign to kill them, such as cells infected w/virus or cancer

23

Monocytes function

-circulate in blood and enter tissue to become macrophages which are important antigen presenting cells
-phagocytosis, present pieces of pathogens to T cells

24

Anemia

-low RBC count, abnormality of RBCs, or abnormal RBCs resulting in low O2 transport capacity
-defined as subnormal Hg level

25

Hematocrit and avg in men/women

% volume of RBCs in a given volume of blood, around 3x Hgb
men-40-54%
women-37-47%

26

Increased hematocrit can be caused from....

-primary/secondary polycythemia
-heart/lung disease
-high altitude
-smoking

27

Decreased hematocrit can be caused from...

-megaloblastic anemia (B12 deficiency)
-Fe deficiency anemia
-acute/chronic blood loss
-hemolysis
-dilution, alcohol,drugs

28

Low Hg levels indicate

anemia

29

Hg electrophoresis is a blood test to detect

different Hg types
sickle cell, thalasemmia

30

Carboxyhemoglobin levels (CO)

non smoker <2%
smoker <9%
toxic >15%

31

glycated Hg is proportional to....

blood glucose concentration

32

MCH (mean cellular/corpuscular Hg)

amount of Hgb in avg RBC

33

MCHC (mean cellular/corpuscular Hg concentration)

avg concentration of Hgb in a volume of RBCs

34

MCV (mean cell/corpuscular volume)

avg volume of RBCs

35

RDW (red cell width)

measure of degree of variation in RBC size

36

microcytic anemia

-small RBCs w/low MCV
-Fe deficiency, thalassemia

37

normocytic anemia

-normal RBCs w/normal MCV
-anemia of chronic disorder, renal failure, hypothyroid

38

macrocytic anemia

-large RBCs w/high MCV
-megaloblastic anemia (B12/folate deficiency)
-nonmegaloblastic anemia (liver disease,)

39

reticulocyte count

-blood test that measures how fast RBCs are made by bone marrow and released into blood
-rises when there is major blood loss or RBC destruction such as hemolytic anemia

40

low reticulocyte count indicates (<2%)

low production of RBCs by bone marrow

41

if you suspect anemia, you first check

reticulocyte count

42

if reticulocyte count is high you suspect...
low you check....

-hemolysis, acute blood loss
-MCV

43

Total iron binding capacity (TIBC)

-measures proteins in blood that bind w/iron, mainly transferrin, increases when iron is low

44

Increased TIBC/decreased sat of transferrin indicates
decreased TIBC/increased sat of transferrin indicates

-dx of iron def anemia
-heomchromatosis (excessive Fe storage)

45

What is the major storage protein for Fe

ferritin

46

decreased levels of erythropoietin indicate...
increased levels

anemia of chronic disease
Fe deficiency anemia

47

Howell-Jolly bodies are associated w/

asplenia

48

a nonspecific test to measure inflammation is....

erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)