Lab - Pigeon Skeletal and Muscles Flashcards Preview

Chordate Zoology > Lab - Pigeon Skeletal and Muscles > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lab - Pigeon Skeletal and Muscles Deck (37):
1

Name the muscle layers labelled A-C on this pigeon. Name the insertion and action of all three. 
What is the thin muscle located in the midline beneath the internal oblique? Name the insertion and action)


What is the large muscle that the index finger rests on top of? (name insertion and action)

Q image thumb

A - External oblique 
B - Internal oblique 
C - Transverse abdominis

All insert on Fascia of ventral abdominal midline and support abdominal wall

Rectus abdominis (I: Pubis A:Supports abdominal wall)

Pectoralis (I: Humerus A: Depressor of wing *downstroke*)
 

2

What Muscle is indicated by A? What is the muscle that has been reflected at B?
(Name insertion and action of both)

Describe, in detail, why the actions oppose one another even though they share the same origin

Q image thumb

A - Supracoracoideus (I: Dorsal surface of humerus A: Elevator of wing *upstroke*)
B - Pectoralis (I: Humerus A: Depressor of wing *downstroke*)

 

The supracoracoideus passes over the coracoid,  through the foramen triosseum and then inserts on the humerus. The tendon of the supracoracoideus can then reverse the direction of pull of the muscle and make the wing move upwards 

3

What muscles are indicated by A-C? (Name insertion and action)

Q image thumb

A - Tensor patagialis longus et brevis (Longus: I: Via long tendon to tendons of wrist A: Assists in tensing patagium Brevis: I: Extensor metacarpi radialis A: Flexing and elevating wing)
B - Deltoideus major (I: Distal half of humerus A: Assists in recovery upstroke, elevates humerous)
C - Scapulotriceps (I: Olecranon process of ulna A: Extends the forearm)

4

What muscles are indicated by A and B? (name insertion and action)

Q image thumb

A - Rhomboideus superficialis (I: Scapula A: Draws scapula medially toward vertebrae)
B - Scapulohumeralis 

5

Name the muscles labelled A and B (name insertion and action)

Q image thumb

A - biceps brachii (I: Posterior surface of radius A: Flezes forearm)
B - Humerotriceps (I: Olecran process of ulna A: Extends forearm)

6

Name the muscles labelled A-C (name insertion and action)

Q image thumb

A - Extensor metacarpi radialis (I: Distal posterior surface of carpometacarpus A: Extends hand, extends second digit)
B - Extensor digitorum communis (I: Distal posterior surface of carpometacarpus A: Extends hand, extends second digit 
C - Extensor metacarpi ulnaris (I: Carpometacarpus, second digit A: Extends wing)

7

What are the insertion and action of the latissimus dorsi?

I: Posterior humerus A: Draws humerus medially 

8

What modifications do we see in the pigeon for flight (to increase power and reduce weight). Give four examples of fusion in the pigeon skeleton

Weight reduction:

Loss of teeth, loss/fusion of bones, hollowing, thinning, and flattening of bones, reduction in length of intestine, regression of gonads in non-breeding season, air spaces in bones and body cavity

Power:

High body temperature, feathers conserve heat, rapid heart rate increases circulation, one-way flow of air through lungs permits efficient oxygen extraction, breathing movements synchronized with flight movements, air sacs permit internal cooling, diet consists of high energy foods with little indigestible material to cause excess weight or prolonged processing time 

Fusion:

Fusion of lumbar, sacral, and caudal vertebrae into synsacrum. Fusion of several caudal vertebrae into pygostyle. Tibiotarsus formed from fusion of tibia and other tarsal bones. Tarsometatarsis formed from the fusion of  tarsal and metatarsal bones. Many skull bones have also fused to make the skull thinner 

9

What is the function of the uropygial gland?

Secretes an oily substance which the bird gathers on the beak and spreads on the feathers for waterproofing and to maintain their structure 

10

Name the indicated parts of the skull

Q image thumb

A - Parietal

B - frontal

C - Jugal

D - Nasal

E - Premaxilla

11

Attempt to name the portions of the skull indicated

Q image thumb

A - Premaxilla

B - Palatine

C - Pterygoid

D - Basisphenoid

E - Exoccipital

F - Supraoccipital

G - Occipital condyle

H - Basioccipital

I - Quadrate

J - Presphenoid

K - Allosphenoid

12

Name the parts of the skull indicated in this photo

Q image thumb

A - Occipital

B - Squamosol

C - Parietal

D - Orbitosphenoid

E - Frontal

F - Lacrimal

G - Nasal

H - Premaxilla

I - Dentary

J - Jugal

K - Maxilla

L - Quadratojugal

13

What type of feather is this? Name the parts indicated

Q image thumb

Flight feather

A - Barb

B - Vane

C - Rachis

14

What type of feather is this? Where can you find this on a bird?

Q image thumb

Body contour feather

Duh, the body

15

What type of feather is this? Where would you find it on a bird?

Q image thumb

Semiplume.

Beneath contour feathers.

16

What type of feather is this? Where would you find it on a bird?

Q image thumb

Down feather.

Function in insulation and are also underneath contour feathers

17

What type of feather is this?

Q image thumb

Filoplume

18

Name each type of feather

Q image thumb

A - Semiplume

B - Body counter feather

C - Contour feather (flight)

D - Down feather

19

What are the sections of feathers in this photo?

What are tail feathers called?

Q image thumb

A - Alula

B - Coverts

C - Primary regimes

D - Secondary regimes

Tail feathers - Rectrices

20

What is the synsacrum?

A fusion of 3 lumbar vertebrae, 4 sacral vertebrae, and 6 caudal vertebrae. It supports the pelvic girdle, firmly attaching to the ilium to absorb the shock of landing

21

The terminal vertebrae representing the fusion of several caudal vertebrae is called the ____. The purpose of which is ______.

Pygostyle.

Serving as a base for the rectrices (tail feathers)

22

Name the parts of the pigeon's hyoid apparatus and state the evolutionary origin of A

Q image thumb

A - Glossohyl cartilage (2 fused ceratohyls)

B - Basihyl

C - Basibranchial

D - Ceratobranchial

E - Epibranchial

23

Describe the function of the uncinate processes

Posterior-pointing projections from the vertebral ribs which aid in bracing the thorax and provide attachment for muscles aid in respiratory movements and ones that support the girdle 

24

Name each bone indicated in this diagram

Q image thumb

1 - Cervical vertebrae

2 - Thoracic vertebrae

3 - Synsacrum

4 - Caudal vertebrae

5 - Pygostyle

6 - Clavicle

7 - Coracoid

8 - Scapula

9 - Vertebral rib

10 - Uncinate process

11- Body of sternum

12 - Keel of sternum (carina)

13 - Sternal rib

14 - Ilium

15 - Ischium

16 - Pubis

25

Name the structure indicated in this photo

Q image thumb

Furcula (two clavicles)

26

Name the structures indicated in this photo

Q image thumb

A - Furcula (2 clavicles)

B - Coracoid

C - Keel of sternum

27

Name the structures indicated in this photo

Q image thumb

A - Scapula

B - Vertebral Rib

C - Uncinate process

D - Carina of sternum

E - Sternal rib

F - Coracoid 

G - Thoracic vertebrae

28

Name the parts of the wing indicated in this photo

Q image thumb

A - Humerus 

B - Olechran process

C - Ulna

D - Radius

E - Digit 3

F - Digit 2

G - Digit 1

H - Carpometacarpus

29

Name the structures indicated in this photo

Q image thumb

A - Ilium

B - Synsacrum

C - Pygostyle

D - Ischium

E - Pubis

F - Femur

G - Patella

H - Fibula

I - Tibiotarsus

J - Tarsometatarsus

K - Hallux

L - Digit

30

What is the skull type in birds? What about the tooth type?

Diapsid - edentate

31

What is the role of the gizzard? The crop?

sdfasd

32

Yo, like, for real though, what is the purpose of the air sacs in birds? Do they have a role in gas exchange?

Air sacs are thin walled sacs filled with air which extend between various organs in the bird's body. They have very few blood vessels and do NOT participate in gas exchange. 

33

Name these air sacs of the pigeon

Q image thumb

A - Interclavicular air sac

B - Cervical air sac

C - Cranial thoracic air sac

D - Caudal thoracic air sac

E - Abdominal air sac

34

35

What is the nictitating membrane?

The "third eyelid", which is transucent and is used to blink (the lids only close during sleep). 

36

What is the phalangeal formula for the pigeon?

2-3-4-5

37