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Flashcards in Lab - All Comparative Deck (18):

What muscle in the turtle is homologous to the primitive Cucullaris?

The sternomastoid


The ventral abdominal veins of the turtle are homologous to what in the dogfish? The Necturus?

Dogfish - Lateral abdominal veins


Bird scales are homologous to ______

Reptile scales


True or false: Hair is homologous to feathers and scales



What type of tooth attachment do the following groups have:
Crocodiles, turtles, birds, humans, Necturus

Turtles - Edentate
Birds - Edentate
Necturus - Pleurodont


The endostyle of primitive Chordates is homologous to the _______ of vertebrates. What is it's function?

Thyroid - concentrates iodine


Determine whether the following organisms are diapsids, anapsids, or synapsids: birds, turtles, mammals, crocodiles

Birds - diapsids
Turtles - Thought to be anapsids
Mammals - synapsids
Crocodiles - diapsids


The ______ cartilage is the sole element of the lower jaw in cartilaginous fishes, but this ossifies and becomes the ______ in bony fishes, forming what structure?

Articular, forming the lower jaw joint with the quadrate


Describe the function of the visceral arches in the Dogfish, bony fishes, Necturus, and turtles

Dogfish - 7 visceral arches. The first one (Mandibular arch) forms the upper and lower jaw (palatoquadrate cartilage and Mandibular cartilage, respectively). The second arch is the hyoid arch and the rest are the branchial arches.
Bony fishes - Mandibular cartilage partially ossifies into articular and palatoquadrate partially ossifies into quadrate
Necturus - Partially ossified quadrate is the only remaining part of the palatoquadrate. Dorsal part of second visceral arch becomes columella, the rest joins with branchial arches 1-3 to become the hyoid apparatus, which supports the tongue and floor of pharynx. 7th visceral arch forms lateral cartilages and support glottis.
Turtles - Hyoid apparatus consists of median body or corpus (derived from Basihyal of second visceral arch and basibranchials of third and fourth visceral arches). The first pair of horns are homologous with the ceratohyals of the second visceral arch. The next two pairs of ossified horns represent the ceratobranchials of visceral arches three and four.


Name what each visceral arch forms in necturus and reptiles

I - Mandibular, partially ossified quadrate
II - Columella, ceratohyl, hypohyl
III - Epibranchial 1, ceratobranchial 1, basibranchial 1
IV - Epibranchial 2, Ceratobranchial 2, Basibranchial 2
V - Epibranchial 3
VI - Poorly developed
VII - Lateral cartilages to support glottis

I - Articular, quadrate
II - Stapes, 1st pair of horns, body of hyoid
III - Second pair of horns, body of hyoid
IV - Third pair of horns, body of hyoid
V - Laryngeal cartilages
VI - Not present
VII - Not present


Name what each aortic arch forms in Necturus and reptiles

I - not present
II - not present
III - First efferent and afferent brachial arteries
IV - Second efferent and afferent brachial arteries
V - Third efferent and afferent brachial arteries
VI - Dorsal part is retained and forms ductus arteriosis (which runs to pulmonary artery)

I - Not present
II - Not present
III - Right aortic arch, carotid arteries
IV - Left aortic arch
V - Not present
VI - Pulmonary artery


Which specific aortic arch gives rise to the external and internal carotid arteries? The pulmonary artery?

Carotid - Arch III in most amphibians and reptiles
Pulmonary artery - Typically arch VI


What type of jaw suspension do amphibians have?



What is the purpose of the frog's urostyle?

To absorb the shock of landing when the frog jumps


How does the length of the scapula vs. the length of the arm vary among different birds?

Birds with powerful, rapid wing beats usually have hand bones much longer than wing segments. Birds that slide and soar may have longer wing bones to pick up the upstream of air


Why is the penguin's hind limb so different from that of other birds?

The penguin needs a more sturdy limb to allow it to properly walk on land without tipping over - their large pectoral muscles add a lot of weight to the front of their body, so they need more stabilized legs. This means that the penguin has more mammal-like legs than other birds do


List the hypaxial muscles of necturus and the turtle

Necturus - External oblique, internal oblique, transversus, rectus abdominis
Turtle - Oblique abdominis, transverse abdominis
Pigeon - External oblique, internal oblique, transverse abdominis, rectus abdominis


List the epaxial muscles of necturus, the turtle, and the pigeon

Necturus - Dorsalis trunci, interspinalis
Turtle - longissimus dorsi