Flashcards in Lab Quiz 5 Deck (21):
Layer 4 of the neocortex is called the internal granular layer. What are its key afferents?
INFO from the thalamus
Layer 5 of the neocortex is called the internal pyramidal layer. What are its key efferents?
OUTPUTS: corticospinal, corticobulbar, corticopontine, and corticostriatal tracts
What happens if you get a lesion in the primary motor and premotor cortex?
Contralateral spastic paresis (homunculus)
What happens if you have a lesion in the frontal eye fields?
Eyes deviate to ipsilateral side
What happens if you have a lesion in Broca's area (which usually in the left inferior frontal gyrus)?
Non-fluent speech, intact comprehension, impaired repetition. Often associated with contralateral facial and arm weakness
What happens if you have a lesion in the prefrontal cortex?
Frontal lobe syndrome: poor judgement, difficulty concentrating and problem solving, apathy, inappropriate social behavior
What do oligodendrocytes do?
Make myelin in CNS
What do ependymal cells do?
Line ventricles and make CSF
What do astrocytes do? *4 fxns)
1. transport nutrients to neurons
2. structural support
3. regulate extracellular space
4. clean up brain debris, digest dead neurons
what do microglia do?
CNS macrophages - eat invaders
What do you call layer 5 of the primary motor cortex? What sort of neurons are there?
Internal pyramidal. Betz cells
What does each layer of the neocortex do?
2. To and from other cortices
3. To and from other cortices
4. INPUT FROM THE THALAMUS
5. Projections to Striatum, brainstem, and cord
6. OUTPUT TO the thalamus
What layers of neocortex communicate with the thalamus?
4 is input; 6 is output
What layer is most heavily represented in the visual cortex?
In what layer is the line of Gennari?
What kinds/sizes of neurons are in each layer of neocortex?
1. Neuronal processes, few cell bodies (light)
2. Small granular neurons
3. Large pyramidal neurons
4. Small granular neurons (Line of Gennari) (dark)
5. Large pyramidal neurons (light w/ big dark spots)
6. Various neurons blending w/ white matter (dark)
Which layers have granular neurons?
2 and 4
Which layers have pyramidal neurons?
3 and 5
70 RHM presents with 3 days of fever and worsening confusion followed by generalized tonic clonic seizure. LP shows 400 WBC (90% lymph)
HSV1 encephalitis (typically unilateral temporal lobe)
38 RHF presents w/ history of MS presents with worsening lower extremity weakness, bladder problems, and right sided clumsiness. PE shows right arm dysmetria and spastic paraparesis
MS has spread to right cerebellum (in spinocerebellar tract)