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Flashcards in Lab Tests And Values Chart Deck (55)
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1
Q

ABGs include what 4 things?

A

SpO2
PaO2
PaCO2
pH

2
Q

Normal value of SpO2?

A

98-100%

3
Q

If SaO2 is below ________%, requires supp O2

A

88-90%

4
Q

Normal value for PaO2?

A

90-100 mmHg

5
Q

PaO2 is ____ with hyperoxygenation

A

Increased

6
Q

PaO2 is ____ with cardiac decompensation

A

Decreased

7
Q

PaO2 is ____ with COPD and some NM disorders

A

Decreased

8
Q

Normal value for PaCO2?

A

35-45 mmHg

9
Q

PaCO2 is ___ in COPD and hypoventilation

A

Increased

10
Q

PaCO2 is _____ with hyperventilation

A

Decreased

11
Q

PaCO2 is _______ with pregnancy

A

Decreased

12
Q

PaCO2 is _______ with PE

A

Decreased

13
Q

PaCO2 is _______ with anxiety

A

Decreased

14
Q

Normal pH values?

What is acidic and what is alkalotic?

A

7.35 - 7.45

< 7.35 is acidic
> 7.45 is alkalotic

15
Q

pH is ______ with respiratory alkalosis: hyperventilation, sepsis, liver disease, fever

A

Increased

16
Q

pH is ______ with metabolic alkalosis: vomiting, K+ depletion, diuretics, volume depletion

A

Increased

17
Q

pH is ______ with respiratory acidosis: hypoventilation, COPD, resp depressants, myasthenia

A

Decreased

18
Q

pH is ______ with metabolic acidosis (bicarbonate deficit): increased acids (DM, alcohol, starvation), renal failure, increased acid intake, and loss of alkaline body fluids

A

Decreased

19
Q

What are the components of hemostasis? (4 things)

A

PT - prothrombin time
PTT- partial thromboplastin time
INR
Bleeding time

20
Q

What is normal PT?

A

11-15 seconds

21
Q

PT is increased in factor __ deficiency, _______ disease, _______, and hepatitis drugs (________)

A

Factor x deficiency
Hemorrhagic
Cirrhosis
Warfarin

22
Q

What is normal PTT?

A

25-40 seconds

23
Q

PTT is increased with factor __, ___, and ___ deficiency

A

VIII, IX, and X

24
Q

INR is the ratio of individual’s PT to reference range: normal is?

A

0.9-1.1

25
Q

Pts with DVT, PE, mechanical valves, Afib on anticoagulation therapy will have target INRs of what?
Pts with these conditions and/or genetic clotting disorders may have a target INR of what?

A

2-3

3.5

26
Q

When treating pts when INR is concerned… look for active signs of _______ and use compensatory strategies to reduce ____ _____

A

Bleeding

Fall risk

27
Q

What is normal bleeding time?

A

2-10 min

28
Q

Bleeding time may be increased in _______ disorders, and ________

A

Platelet

Thrombocytopenia

29
Q

What is normal C-reactive protein?

A

<10 mg/L

30
Q

Increased levels of C-reactive protein is associated with increased risk of ___________
> 100 mg/L is associated with _____ and _______

A

Atherosclerosis

Inflammation and infection

31
Q

What are the components of CBC count? (6)

A
WBC
RBC
ESR
Hit
Hgb
Platelets
32
Q

What is normal WBCs?

A

4300-10,800 cells/mm3

33
Q

WBC are indicative of status of ______ system
_______ with infection: viral, bacterial; inflammation, hematologist malignancy, leukemia, lymphoma, drugs (corticosteroids)

______ in aplastic anemia, B12 or folate deficiency

A

Immune
Increases
Decreases

34
Q

With immunosuppresion, there is an _____ risk of infection

A

Increased

35
Q

PT considerations with WBC:
Consider metabolic demands in presence of _____
and use mask when WBCs are < _________,
or absolute neurotrophic count (ANC) is < ____________

A

Fever
<1000-2000
<500-1000

36
Q

RBCs: what is the normal for males?

Females?

A

Males: 4.6-6.2 x10^6 uL
Females: 4.2-59 x10^6 uL

37
Q

RBCs is increased with ________

A

Polycythemia

38
Q

RBCs are decreased with _____

A

Anemia

39
Q

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR):

Normal for males? Females?

A

Males: <15 mm/hr
Females: <20 mm/hr

40
Q

ESR is increased in infection and inflammation: _____ and _____ inflammatory disease, ______, used to monitor effects of treatment
Also ____, ____, and _____ _____

A

Rheumatic and pelvic inflamm disease
Osteomyelitis
RA, SLE, Hodgkin’s disease

41
Q

Hct is the % of ____ of the whole blood

A

RBC

42
Q

Hct normal for males? Females?

A

Males: 45-52%
Females: 37-48%
(Age dependent)

43
Q

Hct increases with what 3 things?

Decreases with what two things?

A

Increases with: 1. Erythrocytosis, 2. Dehydration, 3. Shock

Decreases with 1. Severe anemias, 2. Acute hemorrhage

44
Q

PT considerations with Hct

Can cause ____ exercise tolerance and increased _____ and _____

A

Decreased

Fatigue and tachycardia

45
Q

Normal Hgb in male and female?

A

Male: 13-18 g/dL
Female: 12-16 g/dL

46
Q

Hgb is increased with ______, _____, ______

A

Polycythemia, dehydration and shock

47
Q

Hgb is decreased with ______, _____ ______, and ____ ______

A

Anemias
Chronic hemorrhage
RBC destruction (CA, sickle cell diseases)

48
Q

PT considerations with Hgb?

A

Can cause decreased exercise tolerance

Increased fatigue and tachycardia

49
Q

What is the normal platelet count?

A

150,000-450,000 cells/mm3

50
Q

Platelet count is increased in chronic _______, and ___________

A

Leukemia, hemoconcentration

51
Q

Platelet count is decreased with ________, acute __________, aplastic ________, and _____ ______

A

Thrombocytopenia
Acute leukemia
Aplastic leukemia
CA chemotherapy

52
Q

PT considerations with platelets: increased risk of bleeding with ___ levels so monitor for _____, ______ and other signs of active bleeding

A

Low
Hematuria
Pethechiae

53
Q

What level of platelets do you do AROM, ADLs only?

A

<20,000

54
Q

What level of platelets do you do light exercise only?

A

20,000 - 30,000

55
Q

What level of platelets are you able to do moderate exercise?

A

30,000 - 50,000