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Flashcards in Language Deck (25)
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1

About how quickly can a word be recognized

about 500msec

2

Name some levels of analysis in language research

Sounds, words, sentence(structure and meaning), discourse context, and world knowledge.

3

Name three reasons language research is difficult

There are different levels of language. How do these map onto the hierarchical structure of anatomy (cells, networks, regions)? Human language appears different than that of most animal models, so there are fewer organisms we can study. In humans, for the most part, controlled lesion studies, single cell recordings and such are not possible.

4

phonetics/phonology

sound structure

5

morphology

word structure

6

lexical semantics

word meaning

7

syntax

sentence structure

8

prosody

sentence melody....

9

compositional semantics

sentence meaning

10

discourse

larger meaning scale than sentence level

11

What physical features make language easier for humans and more difficult for most animal models?

Rounded tongue, control over the lower larynx and crowded teeth.

12

What features of human language have apes so far been able to grasp?

Apes can learn to manipulate signs after much practice, They can learn simple syntactic rules and they can acquire vocabulary and syntax similar to 2-year-old humans.

13

What, so far, appears to be missing from "ape language" that makes it different from humans?

It is mostly thought that they cannot use language to produce novel statements that have not been learned specifically. They cannot separate meaning and syntax

14

A special case in monkey language, Diana monkeys, have the so far special ability to do what similar to human language?

The Diana monkeys have different calls for "jaguar" and "eagle" and thus possibly have semantics (word meaning which reflects attributes of the world around them). They also have added sounds which seem to convey more information like "maybe" or "not urgent" (grammar). They can combine calls to make sentence-like messages that depend on the order of sounds and the kinds of sounds included ( syntax). Displacement: They can refer to things which are not currently present (deception).

15

What is the classical picture of language?

Broca's and Wernicke's areas make up the two prime language centers in the brain where Broca's area is responsible for speech production and Wernicke's is responsible for speech comprehension.

16

What broadman's areas make up Broca's area?

classicaly, 44 and 45

17

Which Broadman's areas make up the auditory cortex?

areas 41 and 42

18

Broadman areas 44 and 45

Broca's area

19

Broadman areas 41 and 42

Auditory cortex

20

Which Broadman areas make up Wernike's area?

Mostly 22, some of 30

21

Brodmann area 22

Wernike's area

22

What were the classic symptoms of Broca's aphasia?

Labored speech, Most lost the ability to name people or subjects (anomia), have automatic speech (greetings) , intact comprehension, many have hemiplegia (one side), not much recovery over time.

23

Describe where lesions in Wernicke's aphasia generally are in the brain

In the posterior of the left superior temporal gyrus extending to adjacent parietal cortex.

24

What are some classic symptoms of Wernicke's apahasia?

fluent speech, many paraphasias (girl/curl, bread/cake). Syntactical but empty sentences, cannot repeat words or sentences, unable to understand what they read or hear. no partial paralysis.

25

Describe the components of the classical Wernicke - Lichteheim- Geschwind model.

Wernicke's area, used for comprehension and memory for words is located in the posterior part of the left superior temporal gyrus. It is connected via the arcuate fasciculus