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Flashcards in Language and Linguistics Deck (106)
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5 Finger Rule

A method to help students determine if this is a book they would like to read.


How it works: Open book to middle section and hold up a finger for each unknown word on a page. After completing the page, see how many fingers are held up:

1–may be too easy

2 or 3 fingers -just right

4 fingers –challenging

5 fingers– too difficult so save for later





A word or words that describe a noun.

Adjectives usually enhance the meaning of the noun.



A word that alters, transforms, or changes a verb.



A word part added to the front of a word which is a prefix, or a word part added to the end of a word which is a suffix.


Alphabetical Principle

Words are composed of letters that represent sounds and that letters and sounds carry meaning.


It also includes the skill to know that print is read from left to right and from top to bottom. It is considered phonics instruction.



Effortless reading of words that usually does not include reading with expression (prosody).


When students continue reading and re-reading text, this helps with their skills in recognizing words; it becomes more automatic.


Book Orientation

Introduction of a book to students through discussion about items such as the front and back covers, title page, the story itself, and unusual names and/or new words, etc.


Closed Syllable

A closed syllable ends in a consonant. This is the most common spelling unit in English and accounts for 505 out of all the total syllables in text.



Help. Hot. Dog.


Complex Sentence

A complex sentence has an independent clause and a dependent clause.

An independent clause can be a stand-alone sentence, but a dependent clause lacks an element to make it an independent clause.



While I waited for lunch, I realized that I had left my car keys at home.


Compound Sentence

A compound sentence has two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction (and, for, but, etc.)



I want to eat at an Italian restaurant, but you want to eat at a Greek restaurant.


Compound-Complex Sentence

A compound-complex sentence is made up of two independent clause and at least one dependent clause.



The bird was sitting in its nest and it was happily singing, but then it fell out.

“But then it fell out” is a dependent clause. “The bird was sitting in its nest” and “it was happily singing” are both independent clauses.


Concepts of Print

The understanding of how print works in books. Includes knowing the front and back covers of books, how a book opens, and that print is written and read from left to right, top to bottom.


When reading to young children, it often helps to point to words as they are being read in order in order to enhance this concept.



A part of speech which is used to join words, phrases, or clauses in a sentence.


Conventional Spelling

When children know and use most basic spelling rules and spell most words correctly. They can often recognize misspelled words, which is a tremendous help in editing either their own or other’s writing drafts.


Conventional Stage

4th stage of reading


Ages 6-7

Students in this stage:

Demonstrates more control over many aspects of the writing process


Can adjust writing for different purposes such as for information, biographies, and narratives


Criterion-Referenced Assessment

A test based on certain pre-determined learning standards, goals, or criteria. The purpose is to determine if students have actually acquired these standards.



John is not successful in the learning standards for the learning standards for the writing process.


Criterion-Referenced State Tests

Tests in which a standard has been set for the test taker to achieve in order to pass the test


Critical Reader

A student who applies background knowledge of the text and becomes part of the writer’s audience.  It involves analyzing and evaluating the text rather than taking every word as factual.


Consonant+L-E Syllable

A consonant+l-e syllable occurs at the end of a word. If the consonant+l-e syllable is found next to an open syllable, then the vowel in the open syllable stays long. If the consonant+l-e is next to a closed syllable, the vowel in the closed syllable stays short.



bugle, candle, bubble, circle, and trample.


Curriculum-Based Reading Assessments

The basis of these texts is the curriculum that is being taught.


Declarative Sentence

A declarative sentence simply makes a statement or expresses an opinion; a declarative sentence makes a declaration.


Descriptive Text

Writing used to create detailed descriptions of people, places, and things.



A combination of two letters that represent a single and distinct speech sound.


Examples of common vowel digraphs: ea as in teach; ei as in eight; ow as in owl.  Examples of common consonant digraphs: ph as in phone; sh as in shoe; th as in think.



A particular sound that is formed by combining two vowels together.


Examples include the oy in toy; ow in owl; oi as in foil. Because of the way the vowels are combined, a diphthong is sometimes called a gliding vowel.


Early/Developing Stage

This stage (sometimes called the Pre-Reading Stage) of reading occurs typically in grades K-1


Students can :

  • Understand basic reading strategies including directionality
  • Match words
  • Locating known words
  • Rely less on pictures
  • Begin to phonetic clues to sound out words


Emergent Stage

2nd stage of reading


Sometimes called: Experimental Stage

Ages 4-5


Students in this stage:

Begins to understand/demonstrate relationship between written and spoken words. Knows that what is said (speech) can be written.


Exit Slips

An informal type of assessment that requires students to write a response to a teacher prompt or question on a card or slip of paper at the end of class.


Some examples include:

  • What is one thing that you learned today?
  • What area do you think we need to discuss more thoroughly? 


Expository Text

Factual material that describes and discusses something or tries to persuade.


Examples are biographies, magazines, and newspapers.


Fluency Development

Reading fluency is the ability to read easily and with understanding and expression (prosody).


When students acquire the ability to read fluently, they are not struggling to sound out words and can better concentrate on the meaning of what they are reading.


Fluent Stage

At this stage, students can quickly recognize many words and apply phonics and word analysis skills to analyze unfamiliar words.


 Because of these skills, fluent readers can read more easily and with accuracy and expression