A brief summary of written or spoken information.
An abstract is often used to help a reader understand the purpose of the information.
The use of words that begin with the same sound and are placed close together in a sentence or phrase.
The beginning sound is usually a consonant.
A sentence or story that is considered ambiguous has at least two different interpretations. Ambiguity often leads to confusion but can be clarified by the total context.
A comparison of two things that are considered different from each other, but they do have some features in common.
There are two kinds of analogies: similes and metaphors.
A piece of writing included with others in various publications or on the web.
The ability to smoothly and easily combine individual sounds together into syllables and words. In blending, each sound may still be heard in the blend.
Some of the most common consonant blends include bl, br, cl, cr, tr, gl, pl, and sp.
These elements include how a character looks physically, how a character acts, and how other characters in the story react to this character.
The climax is usually considered the most exciting part of a story and occurs after the rising action.
Stories can have several climaxes in the form of sub-plots. Stories can also include “false climaxes” which can increase the attention of the reader or viewer.
The use of informal words, phrases, or sometimes slang in a text; colloquial language is often used in ordinary, everyday conversation.
Example: “go nuts”
Determining the meaning of an unfamiliar word by analyzing the word/sentences/phrases surrounding the word.
Creative non-fiction is composed of “real” stories but also uses fiction-literary devices, such as setting, voice/tone, and character development.
“True stories that are told well” is one definition of this type of writing.
An article that expresses an opinion on a specific issue.
Editorials typically try to build their side(s) of an argument and then persuade readers to think the same way that they do.
The ability to analyze the text through questioning parts of the text in order to determine whether it is fact or opinion, if there is faulty reasoning, if there is consideration of different perspectives, how characters are developed, the point of view.
This section of a story is when important background information is introduced.
Exposition can include the setting, events occurring before the main plat and character introduction.
A fictional story that often features animals, legendary creatures, or inanimate objects that are given human characteristics.
There are typically moral lessons at the end of the story.
A story may not be complete after the final climax as there may still be unresolved conflicts.
These conflicts are usually resolved in the stage of falling action as the closure is conveyed. Falling action is sometimes called resolution.
Heterogeneous Learning Groups
Groups of diverse students so that all learning levels are represented. These groups may consist of students of varying interests, special needs, educational levels, etc.
Homogeneous Learning Groups
Groups of students based on common strengths and weaknesses. These groups typically function at similar academic, social, and emotional levels.
Two or more words that have the same pronunciation but with different meanings, spellings, and/or origin.
new/knew, boar/bore, symbol/cymbal, to/two/too, tail/tale.
Exaggerated statements not meant to be taken literally but seeking to emphasize a point.
A phrase or sentence that does not mean what the words sound like, but does have a specific meaning.
It’s raining cats and dogs
The ability to understand parts of the text without it being stated explicitly.
Examples: determining fact or opinion, cause and effect, drawing conclusions, and making predictions.
There are three types of irony: verbal, situational, and dramatic.
- Verbal Irony - the character/speaker says the opposite of his/her actual intention
- Situational Irony - occurs when the result of a situation/event is totally different from what one would expect
- Dramatic Irony - occurs when an audience knows some key information that is not known by a character
The rise and fall of the voice when speaking or reading.
The intonation of the voice while speaking or reading often has an effect on the understanding of the meaning of what is spoken or read.
A story handed down through generations and which is believed to contain historical information. Legends can be based on facts but are typically not true.
This kind of comprehension is understanding the facts that are directly stated in what has been read.
A memorandum is a brief and informal written message or report of information about events or topics.
A comparison between two unlike things that say that one thing is another.
He is a chicken, Your brain is a computer, John is a pig when he eats, The classroom is a zoo today.
A part of speech in which something is referred to or named by the name of something closely related with that thing or concept.
A metonymy usually gives a greater meaning to common words/things/concepts.
Examples: “Lend me your ears” and “They have lots of mouths to feed.”
Having many parts or layers. In teaching reading and other areas of learning, it has been found to be helpful to use a variety of techniques, i.e., use a multifaceted approach.