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Flashcards in Language and Linguistics + Cliffnotes English Questions Deck (63):

What is the "Alphabetic Principle"?

idea that sounds used in oral speech are represented by written symbols. Sound-symbol correspondence. In english we use arabic to represent our sounds. Just remember, SOUNDS represented by SYMBOLS. Like /a/ makes the "ah" sound. That is the Alphabetic Principle.


What does "Logographic" mean?

A writing system where SYMBOLS represent MEANING
Ex: Chinese adapted this type of writing system.


What is "Phonology"?

Rule system within a language by which phonemes are sequenced, patterned, and uttered to represent meaning.
The study of sound.


What is a Phoneme?

The smallest unit of sound that can change the meaning of a word.
ex: (tarts) (s) - starts. when put together, can completely change the meaning of the word.


What is articulation?

How we use our mouth, our tongue, our lips, etc. to produce speech sounds.


How do we produce vowels?

Without occluding, diverting, or obstructing the flow of air from our lungs. We keep our tongue in place, no moving of tongue or lips.


**What is "phonemic awareness"?

allows us to perform segmenting, blending, and rhyming
*if a child has phonemic awareness the child can blend words together. -share, bear, care- they can identify similar phonemes in those words.
-give you a list of words where a child spelled correctly and incorrectly, why do they? Are they spelling phonetically? Do they have Phonetic Awareness?


What is Phonics?

An approach to the study of the relationship between letters and the sounds they represent, and can also mean reading instruction which teaches sound-symbol correspondences in order to help students "sound out" words.


What is Morphology?

The study of meaningful units of language (called Morphemes) and how their patterns of distribution contribute to the forms and structure of words.


Break up the Morphemes in "unbelievably". Which ones are "free" morphemes and which are "bound"?

Un- believe- -able -ly. (un- bound) (believe- free) (-able bound) (-ly bound)


What is a derivational morpheme?

It's similar to a bound morpheme and often is one. It just means that it has the ability to change the morpheme. It's a morpheme that is combined with roots and or stems to form new words with new meanings and has the potential to change the part of speech. Can even change it from a noun to verb, or whatever.
ex: "-ly" changes how you would use that word.


what is a root word?

the core of a word. Ex: in unbelievably- believe is the root.


What is the stem?

Can be made up of a affixes AND root. "Unbelievable" is the stem of unbelievably.


What are affixes?

bound morphemes attached to the root or base word. Prefixes and suffixes.
prefixes ex: un-
suffixes ex: -ly


What is syntax?

The study of rules for the formation of grammatical sentences and the patterns by which words are combined to form phrases. "I ran quickly to get out of the pouring rain." made up of various parts of speech (pronoun, conjugated verb, an infinitive verb, etc. all organized to the rules of syntax so that the meaning of sentence is conveyed.)


What as infinitive verb?

what is a verb? "eating" is a verb. Was does infinitive mean? No time requirements. so what's the infinitive verb of "eating"? "TO EAT!"


Whats an adverb?

You are adding to a verb. to get out. where are you getting? you getting out. you look lovely. How do you look? LOVELY. lots end in LY.


What is a preposition?

suggests a relationship between two things. Can be a relationship in time (before, during, and after) or relationships in space (inside, outside, beneath, above, below)
(by, with, and for) creates relationships between things.


What is an article? Indefinite? Definite? (NOT INFINITIVE OR DEFINITIVE)

it tells you if it is a definitive thing or an indefinite thing. (One or more things)
Definite article- The
Indefinite article- A chair, An automobile.

Can you go get the chair? There's only one. Definite article.
Can you go get a chair? How many chairs are there? No idea. Indefinite article.


What's an adjective?

modifying a noun. "pouring" rain. what kind of rain? the pourin kind.


Whats a conjection?

word that functions as a connector. ex: but, and, because. connects two independent clauses.


What's an interjection?

WOW! An isolated word used to express emotion.


What is a verbal?

POS (parts of speech) derived from verbs, such as participles and infinitives.
"I have been" (past participles) of "to be"
the two words "have been" work together to create that past participle and we call those verbals. infinitive form of that verb.
"to get" (infinitive)- put the words together and you call that a verbal. So we call that the infinitive version of that verbal.


What's a phrase?

"The rusty bucket." (article, adjective, noun) Groups of words that function as a single unit within the syntax of that sentence.


What is the best way to identify a phrase? (Like verb, noun, prepositional)

Find the most important word in the phrase, called the "head word".

"Full of bubbles" bubble is the most important word. Noun phrase
"Over the hill" -Prepositional phrase, "over" is important
"Jump up and down" verb phrase.


What is a clause?

a group of words that contain a subject AND a predicate.

Ex: "The rabbit" "ran from the fox"
-subject -predicate

The subject is typically a noun or noun phrase.
The predicate is typically a verb or verb phrase


What is a predicate?

Usually comes at the end, what is happening to the noun.


What is similar to all the world's languages?

Subject/Predicate style sentences.


What is a pronoun?

A word that replaces a noun. "It, He, She, They"


What is an Article?

A word that describes a noun as definite or indefinite. Definite articles meaning only one "the" chair. "the" marker. / "a" chair, "an" object (more than one).


What are the most important types of clauses? Give examples of each.

An independent, dependent, and relative.

Independent- has at least a subject and a verb, and CAN stand alone as a complete sentence. "The rabbit ran from the fox."
Dependent- CANNOT stand alone clause. not a complete sentence, functions as a noun adjective or adverb. "before I woke up"
Relative clause- dependent clause that is introduced by a relative pronoun, adjective or adverb, and usually modified what comes before it (antecedent). ex: my dad is the tall man who "who wears glasses."
"who wears glasses" is the relative clause.
**On the exam, look for words like "who, which, and that" usually indicates a relative clause.


Give an example of a "simple" sentence.

Is only made up of one clause.

"The rabbit ran from the fox."


Definition and example of a "compound" sentence.

contains two or more coordinate independent clauses, usually joined by one or more conjunctions, but no dependent clause. "The rabbit ran from the fox and he got away." Both parts can stand alone, "and" is the conjunction. (Or with a semicolon)


What is a "complex" sentence?

dependent clause + main clause

Before I woke up, I was sleeping soundly.


What are "pragmatics"?

Situational context, verbal tone, body language. How you say something. "He's a reaaallly nice guy." *eye roll*
versus "He's a really nice guy!"
-can vary with different cultures.


What are two important but different models relating to the acquisition and development of a first language?

1.) Biological model (Nativism) -Linguists Chomsky and Eric Lenneberg. Idea that children have innate language-specific abilities, parts of the brain dedicated to language acquisition. Like nature versus nurture, this argues for nature.

2.) The social/functional model- Non-nativists like Elizabeth Bates and Catherine Snow believe that there is NO biological hardwiring but their is a psychological/social model. Social interactions influence learning (Nurture instead of nature)

**Now modern theories usually support that both bio and social contribute to language development.


Who developed the stages in Language development.
What are they used for?
What are the stages?

Roger Brown's 5 Stages
-helps to evaluate if a child is the norm or exceptional (can be behind the curve, just not the norm)
Stage 1
Early in stage 1, from 12 months of age to 26 months, children will be able to connect the agent with an action and an action with an object; for example, they can say dad walk, give ball. A simple no is used for negation. For a series of objects they just name them, without using connectors. From 22 months of age to 26 months, the late part of Stage I, they can form complete subject-verb-object sentences, use no and not interchangeably, connect words with and, while learning the present progressive -ing, to say Mom cooking, for instance. Prepositions in and on also appear.
monosyllabic, holophrases

Stage 2
The second stage occurs between 27 and 30 months of age, when children learn the meaning and how to use gonna, wanna and other embedding. Copula start appearing, as well as don't and can't in negative sentences, while the negative element is placed between the subject and the predicate. In interrogative sentences, an early inversion makes its appearance, in what and where sentences. Children will have learned how to use in and on prepositions, while during this stage, they will start using regular plurals, as well as irregular past, such as fell and ran.
-private speech-playing with language, practicing

Stage 3
Between the age of 31 and 34 months, children will start using the auxiliary verbs both in declarative and interrogative questions. In addition, auxiliary verbs will appear with copula in the later parts of the stage. Children will start using conjunctions such as if, so, or and but. Won't will start appearing in negative sentences. Possessives, articles and regular past should have been used regularly by kids at this stage.

Stage 4
During the fourth stage, between 35 and 40 months of age, double auxiliary verbs will appear in declarative sentences. Children will use such verbs in negative sentences too, while adding isn't, aren't, doesn't and didn't to their vocabulary. In interrogative sentences, they will be able to invert the copula and subjects in polar (yes/no) questions, as well as do the auxiliary verb --- subject inversion. When and how will also appear in answers. Embedded why questions and infinitive phrases at the end of sentences will also appear, as well as because, to express cause and effect.

Stage 5
Between 41 and 46 months of age, the indirect object will make its appearance in sentences. Children will start using wasn't, wouldn't, couldn't and shouldn't. Tag questions will start appear, such as "He is tall, isn't he?" Children will start using relative clauses to connect very simple sentences, while three clause declaratives will appear. By now the regular third person and the irregular third person will be easily used.

Stage V+
After the age of 4, children will add the indefinite forms nobody, nothing, none and no one in negative sentences, but will still have problem with double negatives. Gerunds will also appear during this stage, as well as embedding and conjoining within the same sentence. Kids will also extend the use of clausal conjoining in their speech. In addition, contractible auxiliary, such as dad's sleeping, will be widely used by children of this age.


What is a holophrase?
What is telegraphic speech?
whats overextension? underextension?
Private speech?

holophrase-a single word used to create an entire meaning. "FOOD!" to say "I would like some food."
telegraphic speech- "daddy play fun" shortened, just to get the main idea. might leave out prepositions and articles.
overextended- dog is a cow, fluffy and four legged
underextended- a Chihuahua is not a dog (if the child has a big dog as a pet)
Private speech- a child talking to self, playing with the language to learn it. practicing.


What is exceptional language development?

It doesn't fall into the norm. Unless a child's English is a second language, then it might not be considered exceptional.


What are the stages of language acquisition (acquiring a language, learning a new language)?

1. Silent period- engaging in internal private speech
2. Formulaic speech- using memorized phrases
3. Experimental- using simplified grammar and semantics to construct impromptu phrases.
4. Fluency- experimental leads to fluency. knowing a language.


What are historically-related languages?

two languages that are similar to each other due to native language roots. like Latin and English, they have similar vocabulary.

Latin based languages- French, Italian Spanish, Romanian, English.


What are two major approaches to developing literacy? Which one do most reading programs use?

The phonics approach and the whole language approach.

Most reading programs use elements of both. Most affective way to learn how to read.


What is the phonic approach? What does it emphasize? What is its weakness?

Phonics approach emphasizes learning phonemes to sound out words (smallest units of sounds. Think of Jack- sounding out letters c/ a/ t- cat.)
You are blending, recognizing, gaining oral vocabulary- decoding unknown words.
Weakness- NOT all words in the english language are sounded out phonetically. Irregular. Can throw children off.


What is the whole language approach?

emphasizes reading immersion techniques to help familiarize students with the irrgularities in English spelling.
Ex: doing a word wall, words with PH rather than F like physics, phone, phoenix
sorting words into word families. words that have things in common. Read a book with many PH words. exposure.


What are the major stages of developing in developing literacy?

1. Pre-alphabetic
2. Early alphabetic phase
3. Late alphabetic phase
4. Orthographic phase


What is the pre-alphabetic phase?

-The first phase in developing literacy
-preschool through kindergarden
-children becomes aware of the directional nature of text layout (reading left to right, top to bottom)
basic visual cues (recognizing first letter of their name)


What is the early alphabetic phase?

-the second phase in developing literacy
-grades K-1st students
-begin to develop phonemic awareness to apply the alphabetic principle, associating letters with sounds. They begin spelling simple words like "bat" or "fog" but omit the vowel. (Why blending and sounding out is important)


What is the late alphabetic phase?

-3rd phase in developing literacy
-1st grade
-students begin to consistently use vowels
-start recognizing groups of letters called phonograms (groups of letters that make a single sound, NOT PHONEMES, a single unit) ex: Ough
Students use phonemic awareness to decode unknown words.
(Blending, decoding words, figuring out the meaning with words they have never read before)


What is infant directed speech?

motherese or parentese- "baby talk". Don't use with 2 or above.


What is recasting?
and echoing?

Strategies to help improve a child's natural ability to speech linguistically correct. Speak NATURALLY with a child.
recasting- rephrase what the child said in different words
expanding- restating in linguistically correct form
labeling- identifying what they said
echoing- repeating one to two words the child has said

"Yes, this is your favorite book, called Goodnight Moon."


When first preparing a lesson with many diverse sociocultural backgrounds, what should a teacher do first before preparing the lesson?

Prepare a portfolio for each child with strategies for individual instructional needs.


Which part of "synchronous" means time?

chron- because chronos means time.


When interpreting a student's spelling development and planning for instruction...

collect samples of child's writing and compare with other students. Create an inventory.


If a child is struggling with reading... What should the teacher do?

Assess his reading and target instruction to meet identified skill needs. In addition, keep records of reading behavior and communicate with parents to gain assistance.


When to use I or me... such as "my sister and I" or "my sister and me"

"The committee gave awards to my sister and me" is correct.
"to" is a connect word, a preposition when the pronoun "me" is the object of a preposition like "to", you need to use "me" not "I"

Also to test you answer, read the sentence with the pronoun object silently. "The committee gave awards to I. Should be me.


In most dictionaries, the explanation of the meaning of pronunciation symbols is usually found...

at the bottom of each page.


Climax is the.... (what part of the story?)



A ballad is...

narrative poem that tells a story and was written to be sung.


What is a "free verse" poem?

no rhymes, no regular metrical pattern, possibly breaks in the continuity of the poem.


What is an "omniscient" point of view in literary criticism?

telling a story that allows author to enter the minds of his or her own characters. The narrator can see, know, report whatever he or she choose. Can be first or third person.


What are three factors that inhibit language acquisition?

1.) mental growth (expanding their ability to retain information. If it was slowed, words could be more difficult to memorize)
2.) emotional growth (learning to express feelings. if this is slowed by emotional problems or inhibitions, it could slow to acquisition of language)
3.) Social growth (additional language becomes necessary when a child interacts with other children. )


When a child is reading something outloud and continually omits things (like the silent "e") so example "hat" instead of "hate" or "cap" instead of "cape".. what do you do?

1. Ask the child if what he or she is reading make sense in the context being read. NO.
2. Do more explicit instruction in vowel recognition
3. Needs more instruction on recognizing word patterns, especially silent e ones.
4. word sorting with final "e" words, exposure to print with these words.
5. Focus on similarities and differences to written word and student pronunciation.


What is an Iambic pentameter?

Particular rhythm used it sonnets, usually Shakespeare sonnets. Ex: Sonnet 18
5 feet, feet= (small groups of syllables)

Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
x / x / x / x / x
Thou art more lovely and more temperate:
x / x / x / x / x