Flashcards in Laryngeal Anatomy Deck (23)
What are the biological roles of the larynx?
prevent air from escaping lungs
prevent foreign substances from entering lungs
expel foreign substances threatening trachea
What is the purpose of the laryngeal ligaments?
interconnect laryngeal cartilages and help regulate extent and direction of their movements
What is the cricovocal membrane?
continuous sheet that connects thyroid, cricoid, and arytenoid cartilages
also called vocal ligament or conus elasticus
What is the anterior commissure?
space between vfs where they originate
What is the posterior commissure?
space between vfs where they attach to teh cricoid cartilage
What are the five intrinsic muscles of the larynx?
thyroarytenoid (thyrovocalis, thyromusclaris)
interarytenoids (oblique, transverse)
Which intrinsic muscle of the larynx abducts the vocal folds?
Which intrinsic muscles of the larynx adduct the vocal folds?
lateral cricoarytenoid, interarytnoids, thyroarytenoid
Which intrinsic muscle of the larynx is a tensor?
Which two ways can the larynx be adjusted?
medial compression - force with which vfs are brought together (TA vs PCA)
longitudinal tension - stretching force (CA vs TA)
What are the two parts of the superior laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve?
What does the external part of the superior laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve innervate?
motor, supplies cricothyroid and part of inferior pharyngeal constrictor
What does the internal part of the superior laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve innervate?
sensory, supplies some mucous membranes of tongue and pharynx
What does the recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve innervate?
all intrinsic laryngeal muscles except cricothyroid, subglottal laryngeal mucosa (sensory), trachea and esophagus (sensory and motor)
damage to the pharyngeal plexus results in what results?
hypernasal resonance, nasal air emission
damage to the superior laryngeal nerve results in what?
impaired pitch range, laryngeal penetration without response
damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve results in what results?
excessive breathiness, reduced intensity, irregular VF vibration, silent aspiration
What are the five layers of the vocal folds?
epithilium, superficial layer, intermediate layer, deep layer, muscle
What are the three layers of the vfs?
mucosa, ligament, muscle
What are the two layers of the vfs?
What is different about children's vocal folds?
does not vibrate as easily -- more effort to produce voice; three layers not present until 15 years
What is different about geriatric vfs?
looser layers atrophy and become thinner, deep layer becomes thicker