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Flashcards in Laryngeal Anatomy Deck (23)
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1

What are the biological roles of the larynx?

prevent air from escaping lungs
prevent foreign substances from entering lungs
expel foreign substances threatening trachea

2

What is the purpose of the laryngeal ligaments?

interconnect laryngeal cartilages and help regulate extent and direction of their movements

3

What is the cricovocal membrane?

continuous sheet that connects thyroid, cricoid, and arytenoid cartilages
also called vocal ligament or conus elasticus

4

What is the anterior commissure?

space between vfs where they originate

5

What is the posterior commissure?

space between vfs where they attach to teh cricoid cartilage

6

What are the five intrinsic muscles of the larynx?

thyroarytenoid (thyrovocalis, thyromusclaris)
cricothyroid
posterior cricoarytenoid
lateral cricoarytenoid
interarytenoids (oblique, transverse)

7

Which intrinsic muscle of the larynx abducts the vocal folds?

Posterior cricoarytenoid

8

Which intrinsic muscles of the larynx adduct the vocal folds?

lateral cricoarytenoid, interarytnoids, thyroarytenoid

9

Which intrinsic muscle of the larynx is a tensor?

Cricothyroid

10

Which two ways can the larynx be adjusted?

medial compression - force with which vfs are brought together (TA vs PCA)
longitudinal tension - stretching force (CA vs TA)

11

What are the two parts of the superior laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve?

external
internal

12

What does the external part of the superior laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve innervate?

motor, supplies cricothyroid and part of inferior pharyngeal constrictor

13

What does the internal part of the superior laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve innervate?

sensory, supplies some mucous membranes of tongue and pharynx

14

What does the recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve innervate?

all intrinsic laryngeal muscles except cricothyroid, subglottal laryngeal mucosa (sensory), trachea and esophagus (sensory and motor)

15

damage to the pharyngeal plexus results in what results?

hypernasal resonance, nasal air emission

16

damage to the superior laryngeal nerve results in what?

impaired pitch range, laryngeal penetration without response

17

damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve results in what results?

excessive breathiness, reduced intensity, irregular VF vibration, silent aspiration

18

What are the five layers of the vocal folds?

epithilium, superficial layer, intermediate layer, deep layer, muscle

19

What are the three layers of the vfs?

mucosa, ligament, muscle

20

What are the two layers of the vfs?

cover, body

21

What is different about children's vocal folds?

does not vibrate as easily -- more effort to produce voice; three layers not present until 15 years

22

What is different about geriatric vfs?

looser layers atrophy and become thinner, deep layer becomes thicker

23

What are the extrinsic muscles of the larynx?

digastric, stylohyoid, mylohyoid, geniohyoid, sternohyoid, omohyoid