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Flashcards in Larynx Deck (37):
1

what is the main function of the larynx

act as a protective sphincter by stopping food entering the respiratory tract

2

what 3 single cartilages are found in the larynx

thyroid cartilage
circoid cartilage
epiglottis

3

what pair of cartilages articulate with the circoid cartilage

arytenoid cartilages

4

what does movement at the articulation between the arytenoid and circoid cartilage allow

movement of the vocal cords

5

what is the quadrangular membrane

ligament connecting the epiglottis to the arytenoid cartilage

6

what are the aryepiglottic folds

the mucus membrane lined quadrangular membrane - this forms the boundary of the laryngeal inlet

7

what epithelia covers the larynx

pseudo stratified columnar epithelia

8

what epithelia covers the vocal cords

stratified squamous

9

what is the name of the false vocal cords

vestibular ligament

10

what is the vestibular ligament

thickening of the lower border of the quadrangular ligament

11

what makes up the vocal ligament

thickening of the upper border of the circothyroid ligament

12

what is the space between the vocal ligament and vestibular ligament called and what does it contain

the laryngeal ventricle contains mucus glands to keep the vocal cords moist

13

what 2 methods can be used to see the larynx

laryngoscope and a nasoendoscopy

14

what muscle acts to open/abduct the vocal cords

cricoarytenoid

15

what nerve supplies the intrinsic laryngeal muscle

recurrent laryngeal

16

which intrinsic laryngeal muscle is not supplied by the recurrent laryngeal nerve and what is it supplied by

the cricothyroid muscle is supplied by the external branch of the laryngeal nerve

17

what do the intrinsic muscles of the larynx do

causes movement of the arytenoid/cricoid joint to allow movement of the vocal cords

18

what happens to the vocal cords when speaking

they are adducted

19

what happens to the vocal cords when coughing

they are initially adducted but the rise in intra-thoracic pressure causes them to suddenly abduct to expel a force of air

20

what happens to the vocal cords when breathing

they remain abducted

21

describe the root of the recurrent laryngeal nerves

L loops under arch of aorta
R loops under subclavian
both ascend up the trachea-oesophageal groove

22

what is the motor and sensory innervations of the recurrent laryngeal nerve

sensory = infra-epiglottis
motor = all intrinsic laryngeal muscles except cricothyroid

23

what is the motor and sensory innervation of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve

motor = cricothyroid
sensory = supra-epiglottis

24

what does a lesion of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve cause

hoarse voice when in a higher pitch

25

what does the cricothyroid muscle do

stretched and tightens the vocal cords to allow higher pitches

26

what does a unilateral lesion of the recurrent laryngeal nerve result in

hoarse voice and ineffective cough

27

what does bilateral lesion of the recurrent laryngeal nerve result in

paralysis of both vocal cords giving a severe airway obstruction

28

what is laryngitis

inflammation of the larynx

29

what is epiglottitis

inflammation of the epiglottis

30

what is croup

a viral infection leading to swelling/inflammation

31

what nerve roots make up the cervical plexus

C1-4

32

what is the ansa cervicalis

where the nerve roots C1-3 join and loop to form the nerve supply to the infra-hyoid muscles

33

what structure do the infra-hyoid muscles overly

the thyroid gland

34

what nerve roots does the phrenic nerve have

C3-5

35

what is the motor innervation of the phrenic nerve

diaphragm

36

what dermatomes does the cervical plexus supply sensory innervation

C2-4

37

what areas are supplied sensory innervation by the cervical plexus

external ear
anterior neck
posteriosuperior scalp
suprascapular fossa