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Flashcards in Last science Quiz Deck (64):
1

What are the three classes of rock?

Igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic

2

How do scientists understand how to classify rocks?

They observe their composition and texture.

3

The minerals and organic matter a rock contains determines what?

Composition

4

The size, shape, and positions of the grains that make up a rock determines the rocks....

Texture

5

What are rocks that have large grains that are easy to see with your eyes?

Coarse-grained rocks.

6

What are rocks called with small grains that can only be seen with a lens or microscope?

Fine-grained rock

7

What rock can be fine-grained or coarse-grained depending on the time magma takes to cool?

Igneous rock

8

The texture of this rock depends on the rocks original composition and the temperature and pressure at which the rock formed. What is it?

Metamorphic rock

9

This rock forms when hot, liquid magma cools into solid rock.

Igneous

10

When magma pushes into, or intrudes, surrounding rock below earth's surface and cools, the rock that forms is called what?

Intrusive igneous rock

11

Magma that is well insulated cools quickly or slowly?

Slowly

12

What kind of texture does intrusive igneous rock have?

Coarse-grained

13

What are some examples of intrusive rock?

Granite and diorite

14

Igneous rock that forms when lava erupts, or extrudes, onto earth's surface is called what?

Extrusive igneous rock

15

Lava cools very quickly at earth's surface. So, there is very little time for crystal formation. Because there is little time what kind of crystals form and what kind of texture does this rock have?

Small and fine-grained

16

What extrusive rock cools so rapidly that no crystals form?

Obsidian

17

Obsidian looks glassy, so it is often called what?

Volcanic glass

18

What are other common extrusive rocks?

Basalt and Andesite

19

Sometimes lava erupts and flows from long cracks in Earth's crust called what?

Fissures

20

The solid parts of earth are almost entirely made up of what?

Rock

21

What did early humans use rock as?

Hammers to make other tools.

22

For centuries people have used different types of rock including granite, marble, and sandstone for what?

To make buildings

23

The ancient Egyptians used rock called _____ to construct the Great Sphinx and the pyramids at Gaza.

Limestone

24

What processes change rock?

Weathering,erosion,deposition,temperature, and pressure

25

The process by which water, wind, ice, and change in temperature break down rock is called?

Weathering

26

Weathering breaks down rock into fragments called?

Sediment

27

The process by which sediment is moved from one place to another is called?

Erosion

28

The process by which sediment comes to rest is called?

Deposition

29

If the temperature and pressure are high enough, the buried rock can change into _______ rock?

Metamorphic.

30

In some cases, the rock can get hot enough to melt and form what?

Magma or molten rock

31

When magma reaches earth surface it is called?

Lava

32

What are the three classes of rock?

Igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic

33

Forms when minerals that form for solutions or sediment from older rocks get pressed and cemented together.

Sedimentary

34

Forms when magma or lava cools.

Igneous rock

35

Forms when pressure pressure, temperature, or chemical processes change existing rock.

Metamorphic rock

36

This rock forms when the weight from above presses down on the layers of minerals or when minerals dissolved in water solidify.

Sedimentary

37

Sedimentary rocks ate made according to the size and type of fragments they contain. What is an example of these types of rocks?

Sandstone
Limestone

38

Metamorphic may be change in four ways..

By temperature
By pressure
By temperature and pressure combined
By fluids or other chemicals

39

This is a metamorphic rock that forms at high temperatures deep within earth's crust.

Gneiss

40

Series of pressure in which rock changes from one type to another is called?

The rock cycle

41

When igneous rock is exposed at earth's surface it may break down into what?

Sediment

42

With temperature and pressure changes, sedimentary rock may become what? Or they may melt and become what?

Metamorphic
Sedimentary

43

What kind of motions can move rock around?

Tectonic plates

44

What are the two types of vertical movement?

Uplift and subsidence

45

The rising of regions of the crust to higher elevations is what?

Uplift

46

Is the sinking of regions of the crust to lower elevations.

Subsidence

47

This increases the rate of erosion on rock.

Uplift

48

This leads to formation of basins where sediment can be deposited

Subsidence

49

This is an area where a set of deep cracks form

Rift zone

50

All the processes that form _______ rock occur mainly at or near the surface of the earth

Sedimentary

51

What are three types of sedimentary rock?

Clastic
Chemical

52

This sedimentary rock forms when sediments are buried, compacted, and cemented together by calcite or Quartz.

Clastic

53

Fine-grained sedimentary rocks, in which grains are too small to be seen, include what?

Mudstone
Siltstone
Shale

54

This clastic sedimentary rock is a medium-grained rock with visible grains

Sandstone

55

These two clastic sedimentary rocks are coarse grained and are made up of large particles, such as pebbles, cobbles, and boulders.

Breccia and conglomerate

56

This sedimentary rock forms when water, usually seawater, evaporates

Chemical

57

What is NaCI

Sodium chloride

58

This chemical sedimentary rock forms when sodium ions and chlorine ions in shallow bodies of water become so concentrated that it crystallizes from solution.

Halite

59

This is a fossiliferous limestone that consist of the shells of marine mollusk that have been cemented together by a calcite. It is also a sedimentary rock.

Co quinoa

60

This forms when plant material is buried and changes into _____. It is also an organic sedimentary rock.

Coal

61

What are the two types of metamorphic rock?

Foliated and non-Foliated rock

62

What is a combination of one or more minerals or organic matter?

Rock

63

If the temperature and pressure changes are high enough the buried rock can change into metamorphic rock. In some cases the the rock gets hot enough to form?

Magma

64

Forms when pressure, temperature, or chemical processes change existing rock.

Metamorphic rock