Flashcards in Law enforcement and punishment Deck (30)
Did the role of witnesses to crimes change?
No,witnesses were still expected to attempt to stop suspects or report them to authorities
Did the role of town constables change?
Yes, their role expanded
Why were crimes like theft and fraud more common in towns and cities?
Life was more anonymous and it was harder to catch criminals and not everyone knew each other
Who were watchmen?
They were unpaid volunteers who also had to do their normal day jobs to earn a living
What was the role of town constables?
They helped with local administrative issues like collecting payments for road cleaning
Who were thief takers?
Constables and watchmen were not particularly effective at hunting down criminals so victims resorted to using thief takers. They were paid a reward for catching a criminal and taking them to the law
How was the concept of thief takers flawed?
Some criminals pretended to be thief takers and they were able to inform on rival gangs in order to make money
Who was Jonathan Wild?
He was the most infamous thief taker. He secretly led a gang of thieves who claimed rewards when they handed in stolen goods.
What was the punishment for not going to church in the 16th century?
What was the punishment for begging drunkenness?
Pillory or stocks- the purpose of this was for public humiliation and to act as a deterrent
What was the punishment for highway robbery?
Hanging,drawing and quartering
What was the Bloody Code?
During the 17th century,the number of crimes that carried the death penalty increased.
How many capital crimes were there by 1688?
Could criminals receive a pardon?
Yes,if they could prove their previous good character or give other reasons why they should not be executed
What was 'Plead for belly'?
Pregnant women could ask to be allowed to live until after the baby was born
How was this flawed?
Often the women were pardoned after the child was born so many women were able to escape hanging this way
What happened to prisoners who were transported to North America?
They had to work for a fixed period of time doing tough manual labour..They had to serve for 14 years
What happened at the end of their term?
They would be freed but they had no money to pay for a return journey so they spent the rest of their lives far from home
Why was transportation favoured by the authority?
-It was seen as an effective deterrent
-England didn't have an effective prison system so it wasn't a feasible option
-England wanted to establish permanent colonies in North America and this was an easy way to populate these colonies.
Approximately how many people were transported to america in the period up to c.1770?
Between 50,000 and 80,000
In the 17th century what did James I give permission for in London?
He gave permission for vagrant children to be arrested and sent for transportation
Define capital crime
A crime that is punished with the death penalty
Help someone return to normal life and society after they have committed a crime
When was transportation introduced?
During the reign of James I (1603-1625)
Why was the system for the Bloody code flawed?
- Many crimes were committed our of desperation e.g someone stealing food to feed their starving child
-As penalties were so severe, the executions weren't always carried out
What was the downside of the growth of towns?
Communities and the authorities had to find new ways of enforcing laws, as previous methods had become less effective over time
What were town constables expected to do?
-Turn in serious crimes
-Stop suspected criminals,break up fights and round up 'sturdy beggars'
Who were town constables employed by?
Who were expected to work as night watchmen?
All householders.This was part of the duties of all males in the town