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Flashcards in Leadership and Motivation Deck (56):

Leadership definition

A process of social influence through which an individual enlists others in the attainment of a collective goal (Chemers, 2001).


Trait approaches to leadership

Focus on characteristics that make a good leader.

Traits are stable and enduring and physical or psychological.

Little evidence to support trait theories.


Judge et al. (2002) – Trait Approach

Meta-analysis: 222 correlations

Big 5 related to leadership effectiveness and emergence?

Overall correlation = .48 (personality predicted 23% of leadership emergence and effectiveness)

Extraversion most consistently related (9% of leader emergence and 3% of effectiveness) – not high so other factors.


Bem and Allen (1974) - trait approach criticism

Trait approach is simplistic, lacks consistent evidence, ignores the situational context.

Correlation among traits and between traits and effectiveness are low (average r = .30).


Behavioural approach

What do effective leaders do rather than who makes an effective leader?

Identified disparities in trait theory e.g. some leaders were unintelligent

Suggests a single set of behaviours effective under all conditions.


Transactional Leadership key assumptions

Leaders transact with followers to get things done

Similar to a process of economic/contractual exchange

Leaders create expectations, set goals, provide recognition and reward for task completion

Followers comply and perform - follow the rules

Leads to the expected effort and performance.


Transformational Leadership overview

Leader inspires followers to high levels of motivation and morality

Persuade followers to believe that they as individuals can make a difference

Leads to extra effort and performance


Bass and Avolio (1997)

Transformational Leadership Four Main Strategies

Idealised Influence: emphasises trust, takes stand on difficult issues, aware of ethical consequences of their decisions.

Inspirational Motivation: articulate appealing visions, challenge followers with high standards.

Intellectual Stimulation: questions old assumptions, stimulates new ways of doing things

Individualised Consideration: consider individual needs and abilities, advises, coaches and teaches.


Multifactor Leader Questionnaire (MLQ).

(Bass and Avolio, 1994)

Evaluates three leadership styles: Transformational, Transactional and Passive-Avoidant.

Allows individuals to measure perception of own leadership behaviors (self form), but also other feedback (rater form).

Designed with 360-degree feedback.

Transformational leadership depends heavily on responses to MLQ.


What do followers think of transformational leadership?

That the leader has special personality traits.

Followers feel trust, admiration, loyalty, and respect (Bass, 1988).


Positive effects of transformational leadership

Increased organizational commitment (Barling et al. 1996)

Perceived leader effectiveness (from followers; Avolio & Bass, 1995)

Increased organizational citizenship (Podsakoff et al., 1996)


Higher Purpose Leadership types

Theories evolved from transformational leadership:

Authentic Leadership
Ethical Leadership
Spiritual Leadership
Servant Leadership


Leader-Member Exchange (Graen & Uhl-Bein, 1995) overview

Leaders adopt different behaviours with individual subordinates and that behaviour pattern of the leader develops over time.

Depends on the quality of leader-subordinate relationships.


Ingroup subordinate groups (LMX):

High quality relationships with their leader
Leader often doesn't have to use formal power.

Leaders discuss performance and personal matters

Appear genuinely interested.


Outgroup subordinate groups (LMX):

Low quality relationship

Likely to use formal power and authority.

Nothing more than a contractual agreement (8 hours work is 8 hours pay).


Does Leader Member exchange work?

General consensus that it works (Ilies et al., 2007)

Exchange of valued rewards

Leader provides open and supportive environment

Follower provides commitment and high performance

High-quality LMX creates trust

Group size moderates effect (larger groups =poorer LMX) (Schyns et al., 2005)


Leadership as Group Process

Leadership is group based:
– Groups elect leaders
– Groups change leaders

Followers not passive recipients
– Part of leadership process and interactive

Leaders are themselves group members
– Need to conform
– Represent the group norms and goals


Leader schema theory

(Implicit Leadership Theory) Lord et al.

Leadership an attribution process of followers

People match leaders to implicit prototypes of expected leader behaviour and personality

Make global assumptions of leader personality and motivation

Adjust prototype based on subsequent behaviour

Better LMX = closer leader fits the prototype


(Implicit Leadership Theory) - Prototypicality

The more similar the leader’s characteristics are to the characteristics valued by followers (e.g. intelligence) the more effective the leader.

Protypical leaders receive more support during failure.

The perception of leadership more important than actual behaviour (Schyns et al., 2007).


Hains, Hogg, & Duck (1997) - Prototypicality

Prototypical leaders are perceived to be more effective in groups with higher group salience (when group matters more to members).


Advantages of the prototypicality approach

Recognises that leadership is a social process

Offers dynamic perspective that can account for when and why leaders change and how they emerge.


Modern idea of leadership

(Haslam, Reicher, & Platow, 2011)

Four rules for effective leaders:

1. In-group prototypes (being one of us)

2. In-group champions (doing it for us)

3. Entrepreneurs of Identity (crafting sense of ‘us’)

4. Embedders of Identity (making us matter)

Social identity is key unifying construct


Motivation definition

Internal factors that impel action and to external factors that can encourage it

(Locke & Latham, 2004).


Precursors of Job Performance (Blumberg & Pringle, 1982)

Capacity to perform: physical and cognitive abilities

Opportunity to perform: working conditions, co-workers

Willingness to perform: worker characteristics that affect their motivation


Intrinsic andExtrinsic motivation definitions

Intrinsic: motivation from within the self (feeling good)

Extrinsic: motivation from outside the self (praise, money)


Does extrinsic motivation work?

(Deci et al., 1999)

Depends on type of extrinsic motivation and how it is perceived:

Motivation through pay:

Positive if perceived as providing information about behaviour

Negative if perceived as attempting to exert control over behaviour

Can have a negative impact on motivation.


Different paradigms of motivation

Innate needs (‘biological make-up’)

Calculating one’s gains (rational, cognitive approach)

Fairness (social-cognitive approach)

Goals(intention shapes action)


Content vs. Process theories differences

Content: Focus on what motivates behaviour in the workplace

Process: Focus on how the content of motivation influences behaviour in the workplace


Needs versus Trait theory idea

(Maslow and Herzberg)

Content theory

Look at the relationship between internal needs and the resulting effort expended to fulfil them

Motivation is needs based, comes from within the individual.

Managers can shape the goals for need fulfilment.

Based on a ‘need for achievement’.

When are needs are not met we experience tension and so are motivated to change it.


Needs versus trait theory evaluation

Higlights need to appreciate that different employees have different needs.

Problem of measurement, no clear relations between needs and behaviour.

Unsure how to use in practice.


Expectancy (VIE) Theory idea


Process theory.

Individuals have different sets of goals and can be motivated if they believe that:

• Increased effort leads to increased performance

• Good performance will lead to rewards

• The reward will satisfy their needs

• The desire to satisfy the need is worth the effort needed

Ues variables Expectancy, Instrumentality and Valance and says these interact.


Expectancy theory (expectancy)

Employees have different expectations and confidence in what they are capable of doing.

The belief that increased effort will lead to increased performance.

Management should discover what resources, training etc. people need.


Expectancy theory (instrumentality)

The belief that if you perform well that a valued outcome will be received.

Managers must be careful not to break the trust of employees and keep their promises so that rewards are fulfilled.


Expectancy theory (valance)

The importance the individual places upon the outcome/reward.

Positive valence = want to attain the reward.

Management should discover what employees value.


How expectancy theory works

Employee beliefs about expectancy, instrumentality and valence interact psychologically to create motivation.

Motivation = Expectancy * (Instrumentality*Valance)

Motivation correlates with performance and effort.


Effort-performance expectancy (E>P)

the probability that our efforts will lead to the required performance level.


Performance-outcome expectancy (P>O)

the probability that our successful performance will lead to certain outcomes.


Goal setting theory (Locke and Latham)

Goals help people to persist and direction their attention and effort.

Difficult, specific and accepted goals result in better performance (16% increase)

Jointly decide on goals between employer and employee (increase acceptance).

Should be individually calibrated by managers.


Goal setting theory four goal mechanisms



Goal setting theory - when goals are too easy or hard

Too difficult = low commitment or acceptance.

Too easy = employee not reaching potential.


How goal setting theory works

Individuals translate general intentions into more specific actions through four things:

STRATEGY (goals lead to task-relevant strategies).

INTENSITY (goals have an energising function)

DIRECTION (direct attention and effort towards goal)

PERSISTENCE (prolong effort when allowed to control time spent on task)

Must have ability to achieve goal and receive regular feedback to maintain motivation.


Goal conflict (goal setting theory)

Multiple goals can lead to goal conflict or prioritisation (Locke & Latham, 2002).

By aligning individual goals with organisational goals and maximising performance, goal conflict and prioritisation can be reduced (Seijts & Latham, 2000b).


Goal setting theory advantages

Solid empirical support over other theories of intentional behaviour

Clear practitioner applications (SMART goals).

Group goals improve performance if individuals are assigned responsibility (Kleingeld et al., 2011).


Goal setting theory disadvantages

Lack of field research.

Individual and Organisational goals may conflict (Locke & Latham, 2002).

Risk attached to setting difficult goals

Lack understanding of why/how goals mean better performance (what are the motivational and cognitive processes involved)


Equity and Justice Theories idea

People are motivated to obtain a ‘fair return’ for their efforts.

Need for balanced contribution from employee and organisation.

Employees compare own inputs to other employees.

Unfairness motivates negative behavioural change.

Theories focus on what employees do when dissatisfied.


Equity Theory

(Adams, 1965)

Outcome focused.

Costs vs. Benefits = inputs and outputs have to be balanced.

Employees calculate how much they contribute to the company vs. how much they get back

Compare this ratio against others’ ratios

Unbalanced ratio = ‘equity distress’

Desire to balance equity leads to reducing effort, altering the comparison, leaving.


Justice Theories

Recognise that outcomes are not the only thing that matter.

Focus on decision making process as the basis of fairness.

Individual perceptions are key.


Organisational justice (justice theory)

Organisational justice = employee perceptions of fairness in the workplace.
Classified into: distributive, procedural and interactional (interpersonal and informational).

Procedural justice most important.


Subtypes of organisational justice (justice theory)

Distributive = fairness of decision outcomes

Procedural = fairness of decision making process

Interactional = how decision process is communicated.

Interactional subtypes:

• Interpersonal = are people treated with dignity?

• Informational = adequate explanation of decisions.


What makes fair procedural justice? (justice theory)

• Voice (getting a say)
• Consistency
• Bias suppression
• Accuracy
• Ethics
• Correctability


Results of high/low procedural justice perception (justice theory)

High procedural justice =it doesn’t matter whether the outcome is favourable or not, people will still have positive views of the organisation.

Low procedural justice = if the outcome is favourable then people will like the organisation but if it isn’t they will develop a negative view of it.


Great man theory (Carlyle, 1907)

Studying the lives and characteristics of ‘great men’ leaders to learn about effective leadership.

An old approach that is rarely used today.


Ohio State Studies (Kerr et al., 1974) - Behavioural Theory

Identified two aspects of leadership behaviour:

Consideration (focused on people not tasks e.g. trust building)

Initiating Structure (task focused e.g. goal setting).

Research inconsistent as some say effective leadership is linked to high in both but some says there two are not linked.


Judge et al (2004) - Ohio State further research

Relationship Orientated (consideration) vs. Task Orientated (initiating structure)

Suggests that:

Consideration (RO) associated with morale and employee attitudes

Initiating Structure (TO) is associated with task and group performance.


Contingency Theories overview

Leaders must demonstrate different behaviours under different circumstances (unlike behaviour theories).


Contingency Theories Evaluation

Good evidence that leader behaviours are more effective under different circumstances.

Criticised as it suggests that these behaviours are trait based and so the manager should be changed when the situation does.