Lean and Six Sigma Metrics/ Introduction to Measure Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lean and Six Sigma Metrics/ Introduction to Measure Deck (20):
1

Pull System

Customer Requirements > On Demand > Adaptation

upsteam

2

Push System

Expected demand > mass manufacturing > economies of scale

downstream

3

Measure Process

-Determine which data to capture
-Develop a data collection plan for the process and collect data
-Establish baseline performance
-Compare to customer results to determine the shortfall

4

Mean based Measurement vs Variance Based Measurement

Customers feel variance

Look at distribution graphs on the 4th slides and youll get what am saying

5

Common causes(Noise) of variation

-present in every process and is produced by the process itself
-it can be mitigated but requires a fundamental change in the process

6

Special causes (signals) of variation

exists in most operations/processes
-caused by unique distubances or a series of them
-can be removed/lessened by basic process control and monitoring

7

If only common causes of variation are present...

the output of a process forms a probably and stable distribution over time

8

if special cause of variation are present...

the output of a process is not stable over time

9

Data Collection Plan

Decide what data to collect
-develop operational definitions
-determine the sampling plan
-collecting data

10

Collecting data

determine which metrics
-identify continuous variable avoid discrete as continuous conveys more info

11

continuous data traits

CONTINUOUS - inference can be made with few data points
-Smaller samples there less expensice
-High sensitivity
-Variety of analysis options that can off insight into the sources of variation

12

Discrete data traits

More Data points required
-larger samples
-low sensitivity
-limited options for analysis

13

Operational Definition of Measurement

Unless you are measuring everything, an operational definition must be set to ensure consistancy

14

Lean metrics

value added/non value added
throughput yield
work in process
takt time

15

six sigma

defects per million opportunities
sigma quality level

16

Throughput yield

number of acceptable units at the end of the end of a process divided by the number of starting units excluding scrap and rework

TPY= no parts right first time/ total no of parts

17

WIP work in process

refers to all materials and partly finished products that are at various stages of the production process

18

Lead time

amount of work in process/average completion rate

19

takt time

time which reflects the rate at which customers buy one unit. helps define how fast work must go to keep up with demand

20

DPMO calculation

U= units
CTQ = critical to quality
D = Defect
O = Opportunity

Total opportunities (TOP) = Ux0
Defect per unit (DPU) DPU = D/U
Defects per unit opportunity (DPO) DPO =DPU/O
DPMO = DPO*10^6