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Psych GRE - Experimental > Learning > Flashcards

Flashcards in Learning Deck (38)
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1

Kurt Lewin

Theory of Association

2

Simultaneous Conditioning

US & CS are presented at the same time

3

Higher-order conditioning or Second-order conditioning

Previous CS acts as US

4

Forward Conditioning

CS is presented before US

5

Delayed Conditioning

Presentation of CS before US and lasts until US is presented

6

Trace conditioning

CS is presented and terminated before US is presented

7

Backward Conditioning

US is presented before CS

8

Inhibitory Conditioning

Caused by backward conditioning

9

E.L Thorndike

Law of effect

10

Another term for Shaping

Differential reinforcement of successive approximations

11

Most robust reinforcement schedule

Variable ratio

12

Second most robust reinforcement schedule

Variable interval

13

Token Economy

An artificial mini-economy where individuals are motivated by secondary reinforcers, which can be cashed in for primary reinforcers

14

What is the problem with drive-reduction or balance theories?

They don't explain why individuals often seek out stimulation, novel experience, or self-destruction

15

Clark Hull

Performance = Drive x Habit

16

Edward Tolman

Expectancy-value theory

Performance = Expectation x Value

17

Victor Vroom

Applied expectancy-value theory to I/O

18

Henry Murray and David McClelland

Need for achievement (nAch)

19

John Atkinson

People set realistic goals with intermediate risk but not unrealistic or risky goals (want to succeed more than fail)

20

Neil Miller

Approach-avoidance conflict

21

Premack principle

People are motivated to do what they don't want to do by rewarding themselves with something after

22

Donald Hebb

Medium arousal = optimal performance

23

Yerkes-Dodson effect

Simple tasks = higher arousal

Complex tasks = lower arousal

24

Perceptual or Concept Learning

Learning about something in general rather than a specific stimulus-response

25

Latent learning

Takes place without reinforcement & the actual learning is revealed at another time

26

Incidental learning

Unrelated items are grouped together

27

Overshadowing

The inability to infer a relationship between a stimulus and response due to the presence of a more prominent stimulus

28

John Garcia

Discovered that animals are programmed through evolution to make certain connections

29

Preparedness

We learn certain associations more easily than others

30

Garcia effect

The extremely strong connection between nausea and food that needs little conditioning

31

M.E. Olds

Performed experiments where animals performed behaviors to receive stimulation

32

Are continuous or discrete motor tasks easier to learn?

Continuous

33

Humans are primed to learn between what ages?

3–20

34

Describe how humans learn from age 20–50.

The ability to learn remains constant.

35

Describe how humans learn after age 50.

The ability to learn drops.

36

Who wrote the first educational psychology textbook and when?

Thorndike in 1903

37

Aptitude

A set of characteristics that are indicative of a person's ability to learn

38

Scaffolding learning

When a teacher encourages the student to learn independently and only helps when shit gets too hard