Flashcards in Learning Deck (38)
Theory of Association
US & CS are presented at the same time
Higher-order conditioning or Second-order conditioning
Previous CS acts as US
CS is presented before US
Presentation of CS before US and lasts until US is presented
CS is presented and terminated before US is presented
US is presented before CS
Caused by backward conditioning
Law of effect
Another term for Shaping
Differential reinforcement of successive approximations
Most robust reinforcement schedule
Second most robust reinforcement schedule
An artificial mini-economy where individuals are motivated by secondary reinforcers, which can be cashed in for primary reinforcers
What is the problem with drive-reduction or balance theories?
They don't explain why individuals often seek out stimulation, novel experience, or self-destruction
Performance = Drive x Habit
Performance = Expectation x Value
Applied expectancy-value theory to I/O
Henry Murray and David McClelland
Need for achievement (nAch)
People set realistic goals with intermediate risk but not unrealistic or risky goals (want to succeed more than fail)
People are motivated to do what they don't want to do by rewarding themselves with something after
Medium arousal = optimal performance
Simple tasks = higher arousal
Complex tasks = lower arousal
Perceptual or Concept Learning
Learning about something in general rather than a specific stimulus-response
Takes place without reinforcement & the actual learning is revealed at another time
Unrelated items are grouped together
The inability to infer a relationship between a stimulus and response due to the presence of a more prominent stimulus
Discovered that animals are programmed through evolution to make certain connections
We learn certain associations more easily than others
The extremely strong connection between nausea and food that needs little conditioning
Performed experiments where animals performed behaviors to receive stimulation
Are continuous or discrete motor tasks easier to learn?
Humans are primed to learn between what ages?
Describe how humans learn from age 20–50.
The ability to learn remains constant.
Describe how humans learn after age 50.
The ability to learn drops.
Who wrote the first educational psychology textbook and when?
Thorndike in 1903
A set of characteristics that are indicative of a person's ability to learn