Flashcards in learning aim a Deck (53):
give 3 primary sexual characteristics for males
- penis and testes enlarge
- spontaneous erections
- testes being to produce sperm
give 3 primary sexual characteristics for females
- uterus and vagina grows
- ovaries begin to release eggs
- menstrual cycle commences
give 3 secondary sexual characteristics for females
- breasts develop
- redistribution of fat and muscle causing hips to widen
-pubic and under arm hair grows
give 3 secondary sexual characteristics for males
- facial, underarm and pubic hair grows
- changes in the larynx causing the voice to deepen
- redistribution of fat and muscle
2 fine motor skills of a 3 year old
- can use a pencil to copy letters
- build a small tower with cubes
3 gross motor skills of a 3 year old
- use pedals on a tricycle
- balance on one foot
an example of a fine motor skill of an 4-6 year old
- dress and undress (including buttons and laces)
5 gross motor skills of a 4-6 year old
- ride a bike
an example of a fine motor skill of an 8 year old
- control of small muscles, can draw a detailed picture
an example of a gross motor skill of an 8 year old
- good co- ordination and strength means they can take part in various activities and sports
gross and fine motor skills of a new born
g- primitive instincts such as a grasp
f - holds their thumbs tucked into their hands
gross and fine motor skills at one month
g- lifts chin, some control of head
f- opens hands to grasp a finger
gross and fine motor skills at 3 months
g- can lift their head and chest when lying on front
f- can briefly grasp a rattle
gross and fine motor skills at 6 months
g- rolls over, can sit up for a short time without support, kicks legs when held up
f- moves objects from hand to hand, can pick up dropped toys in in sight
gross and fine motor skills at 9-10 months
g- crawls, begins to cruise
f- uses finger and thumb to hold a small object
gross and fine motor skills at 12-13 months
g- stands alone, walks with no help
f- manipulates and places toys
gross and fine motor skills at 18 months
g- climbs onto furniture
f- builds a short tower with blocks
gross and fine motor skills at 2 years
g- propels a sit on toy with their feet, throws a large ball
f- draws lines and circles, turns a page
gross and fine motor skills at 2 and 1/2 years
g- jumps from a low step, kicks a ball
f- uses a spoon and fork
1 Language development, which is essential for organising thoughts and to share and
express ideas. It is also important for clarification.
2 Problem solving is an important skill that is required both to work things out and to
make predictions about what might happen.
3 Memory is required for storing, recalling and retrieving information.
4 Moral development allows for reasoning and making choices, and informs the
individual how to act in particular situations and how to act towards self and
5 Abstract thoughts and creative thinking are essential for thinking and discussing
situations and events that cannot be observed.
language development at 3 month
Infants begin to make babbling noises as they learn to control the
muscles associated with speech.
language development at 12 months
Infants begin to imitate sounds made by carers such as ’da da’. This
develops into using single words.
language development at 2 years
Infants begin to make two-word sentences, such as ’cat goed’ (meaning
the cat has gone away). The infant begins to build their vocabulary
(knowledge of words).
language development at 3 years
Children begin to make simple sentences, such as ’I want drink’. This
develops into the ability to ask questions, ’when we go?’ Knowledge of
words (vocabulary) grows very rapidly.
language development at 4 years
Children begin to use clear sentences that can be understood by
strangers. Children can be expected to make some mistakes with
grammar, ’we met lots of peoples at the shops today
language development at 5 years
Children can speak using full adult grammar. Although vocabulary will
continue to grow and formal grammar will continue to improve, most
children can be expected to use language effectively by the age of five.
encouraging speech in infants
•• Blow bubbles.
•• Play with puppets.
•• Watch and listen to other
•• Join in with action
rhymes and songs.
•• Look at picture books
encouraging speech in adolescence
Read a wide range of
books and journals.
•• Take part in group projects.
•• Discuss ideas.
•• Plan and deliver
Abstract logical thinking –
the ability to solve problems
using imagination without
having to be involved
practically. This is an
advanced form of thinking
that does not always need a
practical context in order to
Egocentric thinking –
being able to see a situation
from another person’s point
of view. Piaget thought that
a young child assumed that
other people see, hear and
feel exactly the same as the
Concrete logical thinking –
he ability to solve problems
providing an individual can
see or physically handle the
the child constructs an understanding or concept (schema)
the child's experience fits with their schema
a new experience disturbs the child's schema
the child's understanding (schema)changes to take into account the new experience
4- formal operations
young people have the capacity for abstract thinking, rational thought and problem solving
3- concrete operations
children use resources to help them to unnderstand the world, such as counters for maths. they classify, categorise and use logic to help them understand.
are capable of conservation no longer egocentric
2- pre operational
children begin to control their environment by using symbolic behaviour, including representational words and drawings and pretend play, but cannnot think logically
learn about their enviroment and develop earl schemas through sense experience
responds to any caregiver
shows preference for primary caregiver but accepts care from others
prefers primary caregiver. unhappy w strangers and when separated from primary caregiver
develops multiple attachments. attaches to those who responds to them.
how individuals see them self
eg skinny may see them self as fat
self image+ self esteem
how individuals value and feel the knowledge they have about themselves.
eg i cant do it, im not good enough, people dont like me
engrossed in its own play
rattle, shakers, balls
playing next to eachother. aware of other children, may copy eachother but dont interact.
share, talk,play together
parents are indulgent. they do not attempt to control behaviour
parents are neglectful and show a lack of interest. there is a poor attachment
parents assert their authority. children are controlled