Learning and Development - Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Learning and Development - Part 2 Deck (94)
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Describe Temperament

- A person's basic disposition
- Has a genetic component
- Is apparent to some degree at birth
- Predictive of later personality


Behavioral Inhibition (KAGAN)

- Child identified as Inhibited or Uninhibited
- Kagan's research confirmed a biological contribution
- Characteristic is relatively stable
- Children identified at 21 months of age as being either inhibited or uninhibited
--->categorized the same at 5 1/2 and 7 1/2 years old.
- Level of inhibition related to physiological reactivity


What does research show about physiological sxs in children who have opposite behavioral inhibition temperament?

- Inhibited children had a higher heart rate, greater pupil dilation, and greater changes in blood pressure than uninhibited children.


Describe the Thomas & Chess Model of temperament

- Thomas & Chess thought that most babies can be categorized by 1 of 3 categories:
- Easy, Difficult, and Slow to Warm Up


Thomas & Chess' Model of Temperament

Goodness of Fit Model- a child's adjustment is related to the degree to which the parents' behaviors match the child's temperament.


Erickson's 8 PsychoSocial Stages of
(Time period, Name of Stage, Primary Outcome)

1. Infancy- TRUST VS MISTRUST - trust and optimism (Virtue = Hope)
2. Toddler- AUTONOMY vs SHAME/DOUBT - sense of self/autonomy
(Virtue = WILL)
3. Early Childhood- INITIATIVE vs GUILT - set goals, devise and carry out plans
(Virtue = Purpose)
4. School Age- INDUSTRY vs INFERIORITY - to avoid inferiority, child must develop social and academic skills (Virtue = Competence)
5. Adolescence- IDENTITY vs ROLE CONFUSION (Identity Crisis)- Personal identity, direction for future (Virtue = Fidelity)
6. Young Adulthood- INTIMACY vs ISOLATION - establish bonds of love and friendship, or self-absorption and isolation may result (Virtue = Love)
7. Middle Adulthood- GENERATIVITY vs STAGNATION - people and work important, exhibit commitment to future generations (Virtue = CARE)
8. Maturation/Old Age- EGO INTEGRITY vs DESPAIR - embrace humanity widely; informed, detached concern about death; sense of integrity (Virtue = WISDOM)


Levinson's Developmental Theory

- Transitions
- The Dream
- Time-since-birth to Time-Left to live


Baumrind's 4 Parenting Styles

1. Authoritarian: Demanding, low Responsivity kids: irritable, aggressive, low self-esteem, low academic achievement
2. Authoritative: Rational control and responsivity, encouragement of independence. Kids assertive, self-confident, academic achievement
3. Permissive (Indulgent) - warm/caring but low demands and non-punative. Kids: immature, self-centered, easily frustrated, and low in achievement and independence.
4. Rejecting-Neglecting: non-responsive and low-demanding; Kids:


What does research show is associated with adolescent delinquency?

- Lack of maternal warmth
- Lack of supervision
- Inconsistent or harsh discipline


What does research say about maternal depression on development?

- Increases child's risk for emotional and behavioral problems
- Associated with insecure attachment in infants and preschoolers


Early Self-Descriptions

Ages 2-6: concrete physical characteristics, specific behaviors, and preferences
Ages 6-10 (middle childhood): refer to their competencies.


Kohlberg's Cognitive Development Theory (of gender development):

Kohlberg thought that like Cognitive Development Theory, identity development entailed a predictable sequence of stages: - Gender identity, gender stability, gender constancy


What was Bem's Theory?

GENDER SCHEMATA THEORY: children develop conceptual frameworks about what is expected of them as girls or boys, and then apply those frameworks to their own behavior.


What does research say about androgeny?

That for both males and females, androgeny and masculinity are associated with higher levels of self-esteem than is femininity.


What did Erickson say was the primary developmental task of adolescence?

Achievement of a coherent identity


What did Marcia say involved 4 Stages? (Expanded on Erickson's idea)

Development of an adolescent identity.
The stages of Diffusion, Foreclosure, Moratorium, Achievement.


Gilligan's Argument

That in adolescence, girls experience a Relational Crisis as the result of increasing pressure to conform to cultural stereotypes about the "perfect good woman"


At about what age do children understand that death is universal and irreversible and ends biological f(x)ing?

About age 10


When are adults most anxious about death?



What are Kubler-Ross' 5 Stages of reacting to one's own death?

1. Denial
2. Anger
3. Bargaining
4. Depression
5. Acceptance



- Refers to the strong emotional bond that develops between an infant and his or her primary caregiver(s).
- There are several explanations for the origins of attachment.


Name common approaches to theories of attachment and who the main researcher was

- Psychoanalytic
- Attachment due to mother consequence of oral gratification
- Harlow (Learning Theory; monkey exp)
- Attachment due at least in part to Contact Comfort
- Bowlby
- Attachment due exposure of infant to their mother during a critical period (1st year of life)
- said babies born w/predisposition to increase attachment, ie: cry, smile, vocalize
- defined 4 Stages of Attachment and "internal working model"


Bowlby's Attachment Theory

Defined 4 stages:
- pre-attachment
- attachment-in-the-making
- clear-cut attachment
- formation of reciprocal relationships-
These result in an Internal Working Model


Signs of Attachment

Social Referencing (6 months)
- baby looks at caregiver to see how to respond (Visual Cliff)
Separation Anxiety
Stranger Anxiety


Ainsworth's categories of attachment

I. Secure
II Insecure- Anxious/Ambivalent
III. Insecure Anxious/Avoidant
IV. Disorganized/Disoriented


Strange Situation

AINSWORTH- A research procedure in which mother leaves their infant alone with a stranger and then returns


Secure Attachment: Parent and Child Characteristics

P: Emotionally sensitive , responsive to baby's cues
C: Explores room with mother present, mildly upset when mother leaves, actively seeks her out when she returns


Insecure Anxious Ambivalent

P: Moody, inconsistent behavior in mother
C: Ambivalent, resistant behavior,


Insecure Anxious Avoidant

P: Impatient, unresponsive OR provide too much stimulation
C: Interacts very little with mother, little distress when leaving room, avoids or ignores her return, react to mother and stranger similarly


DisORganized/DisORiented Attachment

P: 80% of mistreated babies display characteristics
C: Fear of caregivers, dazed or confused facial expression, greeting mother then looking away, other disorganized attachment behaviors.