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Neuroscience II Exam II > Learning and Memory + Review Q’s > Flashcards

Flashcards in Learning and Memory + Review Q’s Deck (18)
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1

Short-lived form of synaptic plasticity that results in increased frequency of miniature EPSPs and thus results in increased probability of action potentials in the post-synaptic cell

Post-tetanic potentiation (PTP)

2

A persistent increase in synaptic strength following high-frequency stimulation of a chemical synapse; requires repeated strong stimulation

Long-term potentiation

3

Mechanism of long-term potentiation

Increased phosphorylation of AMPA receptors and insertion of additional AMPA receptors into post-synaptic membrane

Eventually, activation of calcium-calmodulin-CREB mechanism

4

Long-term declarative memories are widely stored in the _________

Cerebral cortex (area depends on memory - visual, auditory, association areas, etc.)

5

Long-term non-declarative memories are widely stored where?

Areas related to motor behavior

6

Consolidation of memory is the process by which labile memory is stabilized; it involves the process of __________ as well as physical changes in synaptic structure

Long-term potentiation

[anatomically involves hippocampus, temporal lobes, papez circuit, and cingulate cortex]

7

Short term memory is associated with more synaptic ______ changes, while long term memory is associated with more _____ changes

Chemical; structural

8

Retrieval of memory typically involves what areas of the brain?

Cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and hippocampus

Memory itself is reconstructed in hippocampus

9

Important site of adult neurogenesis

Dentate gyrus


[proposed function of time-stamping new information—aka giving it context]

10

Working (short-term) memory involves accessing memories and using what you remember.

What are the 3 components to this model?

Phonological loop — Wernicke’s and Broca’s areas (provides auditory info associated with memory)

Visuospatial loop — Occipital cortex (visual info associated with memory)

Executive control processes — Prefrontal cortex (allocates attention)

11

Spatial memory involves place cells in the _______, specifically specialized ______ cells in CA1

It also involves grid cells in the _________ ______, which work in conjunction with the cell type above for spacing and orientation

Hippocampus; pyramidal

Entorhinal

12

A 27 y/o man with severe epilepsy, characterized by major convulsions and lapses of consciousness every few minutes, underwent experimental neurosurgery to help relieve his seizures. The operation had a significant beneficial effect on the epilepsy, but led to a devastating memory deficit. He had normal procedural memory, maintained long-term memory for events that occurred prior to surgery, and his short-term memory was intact, but he could not commit new events to long-ter memory (loss of declarative memory). Which of the following areas of the brain was bilaterally resected in this patient?

A. Cerebral cortex
B. Cingulate gyrus
C. Hypothalamus
D. Parietal lobe
E. Temporal lobe

E. Temporal lobe


Temporal lobes play critical role in converting short-term declarative memories into long-term memories.

The hippocampus is the primary structure within the temporal lobe involved in this conversion. Because the patient retained memories from before the surgery, his case shows that the hippocampus is not involved in the storage of declarative memory

13

Activation of the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia is produced by which neurotransmitter?

A. GABA
B. Serotonin
C. Acetylcholine
D. Dopamine

C. Acetylcholine


[2 major NTs associated with activation of the indirect pathway: ACh via the intrastriatal cholinergic pathway and EAA coming in from the cortex — mostly from areas related to judgement of whether motion is appropriate]

14

A patient enters a comatose state after a large hemorrhagic stroke. In a few weeks time, the release of glutamate and ACh from medullary and pontine areas increases to normal levels. What change would this produce in the pt?

A. The appearance of decorticate rigidity when pt’s head is turned to the left
B. The appearance of clear sleep/wake cycles
C. The appearance of the ability to answer questions verbally
D. The appearance of involuntary flailing motions of the arms

B. The appearance of clear sleep/wake cycles

15

After a near drowning, a young child regains consciousness and was able to follow simple commands. Within a few hours, he becomes comatose as swelling of his brain occurs. An experimental tx using an ion channel blocker is initiated in an attempt to improve his condition. What is the most likely target of the treatment?

A. D1 receptors
B. GABA-A receptors
C. Nicotinic cholinergic receptors
D. NMDA receptors

D. NMDA receptors

The cascade initiated in response to ischemia in the brain depends on the entrance of calcium into the neurons; of those listed, NMDA is associated with calcium channel

16

Following a TBI, a veteran experiences an increase in gamma-motoneuron discharge of the skeletal muscles innervated by the now damaged area of the brain. What sign/symptom will she experience as a result of this?

A. Rigidity
B. Spasticity
C. Tonic-clonic seizures
D. Hemiballism

B. Spasticity

17

While studying for Monday’s test, Student Dr. Still realizes he must devote extra attention to the physiology of long-term potentiation as he is having a hard time with the concept. His efforts result in a prolonged activation of synapses in his hippocampus and an increase in the amount of sodium that enters via the post-synaptic AMPA receptors. Which of the following events is most directly responsible for this increase?

A. Decreased glycine binding to the NMDA receptor on post-synaptic cell membranes
B. Activation of nitric oxide synthase within the post-synaptic neuron
C. Binding of CREB and expression of new AMPA receptors within the post-synaptic cell
D. Calcium binding to calmodulin within the post-synaptic neuron

D. Calcium binding to calmodulin within the post-synaptic neuron

18

Student Dr. Scully has been made an involuntary research participant and given an experimental drug. She remembers nothing of the next 6 hours despite the fact that her secret video camera recordings indicate that she was fully functional and, in fact, was rehearsing the script for her next show from memory during that time. Which of the following is the most likely mechanism of action of the experimental drug she was given?

A. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase
B. Inhibition of protein synthesis
C. Inhibition of NMDA receptors
D. Inhibition of muscarinic cholinergic channels

B. Inhibition of protein synthesis