Lec 05: Disorders of the Spinal Cord Flashcards Preview

[OS 211] Exam 1 Adre > Lec 05: Disorders of the Spinal Cord > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lec 05: Disorders of the Spinal Cord Deck (37)
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1

What is the anatomical extent of the spinal cord?

craniocervical junction (basi-occiput) to nerve roots in the cauda equina

2

What are the two most mobile segments of the spine?

cervical and lumbar

3

Most degenerative spinal diseases are found in which segments of the spine?

cervical and lumbar

4

What are the transitional regions of the spine?

cervicothoracic, thoracolumbar, lumbosacral

5

Which type of vertebra has the smallest vertebral body?

cervical

6

What is the trend in vertebral body size in relation to position?

As we go down, there is increasing size of the bodies because of increasing weight.

7

Which cervical vertebra does not have a body?

C1

8

Which cervical vertebra is the strongest?

C2

9

The odontoid process articulates with?

ring of the atlas (C1)

10

What is the purpose of the transverse atlantal ligament?

connects the dens to the ring of the atlas, preventing transverse displacement of the atlas

11

Which vertebral segment is the least mobile?

thoracic

12

Cervical facets have what angle?

45 degrees

13

Thoracic facets have what angle?

60 degrees

14

Lumbar facets have what angle?

90 degrees

15

What movements are allowed by the lumbar vertebra?

flexion and extension only

16

Which vertebral segment does not have any muscles anteriorly?

thoracic

17

What is the strongest vertebral ligament?

ALL - only ligament that limits extension

18

Which vertebral ligament has pain nerve endings?

PLL

19

The adult spinal cord ends at what level?

L1

20

What are the three levels of the spinal MRI?

cervical, thoracic, and lumbosacral

21

What are the characteristics of Central Cord syndrome?

more extensive motor weakness in the UE than in the LE, typically in patients with hyperextension injuries (UE fibers are located more centrally)

22

What are the characteristics of Anterior Cord syndrome?

motor function deficits, loss of detailed sensation

23

What are the characteristics of Posterior Cord syndrome?

position sense deficit

24

What are the characteristics of Brown-Sequard syndrome? (injury to the lateral half of the spinal cord)

motor paralysis and loss of proprioception are greater ipsilaterally, pain and temperature sensory loss are greater contralaterally

25

What are the characteristics of Conus Medullary syndrome?

combined lower and upper motor neuron deficits, flaccid paralysis (LMN), hyperreflexia (UMN)

26

What is spinal shock?

transient loss of all neurologic function below the level of the spinal cord injury

27

What is the difference between spinal shock and complete cord syndrome?

cord syndromes do not manifest until after 72 hours

28

What are possible spine pathology mimickers?

nerve entrapment syndromes, soft tissue injuries

29

What is the difference between vascular and neurogenic claudication?

vascular claudication - immediate relief upon resting (for surgery)
neurogenic claudication - relief in certain positions

30

What is the most common extramedullary tumor?

Schwanomma

31

(T/F) A meningioma commonly presents anteriorly.

T

32

What is the usual location of an ependymoma?

conus medullaris

33

What is a syrinx?

CSF pocket within the spinal cord

34

(T/F) A low-grade astrocytoma is easier to surgically remove than a high-grade astrocytoma.

F

35

When is the posterior approach in surgery used?

lumbar and thoracic tumors

36

What is the difference between a meningocoele and a myelomeningocoele?

meningocoele - csf and meninges in herniation but no neural elements
myelomeningocoele - w/ spine

37

What are the 4 stages of disc herniation?

incomplete: degeneration, prolapse
complete: extrusion, sequestration