Lec 20: Traumatic Brain Injuries Flashcards Preview

[OS 211] Exam 1 Adre > Lec 20: Traumatic Brain Injuries > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lec 20: Traumatic Brain Injuries Deck (25)
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1

What is the leading cause of TBIs in the US?

falls

2

Which sex is more likely to sustain a TBI?

male

3

What are the two age groups at highest risk for TBI?

0 -4 y.o.: start of walking and increased activity
15- 19 y.o.: adolescence, increased risk-taking behavior

4

What is the most common mechanism of injury for TBI?

acceleration-deceleration motion

5

Why is a young child at greater risk for injurious acceleration-deceleration motion?

head is heavy in relation to the body so it moves more than should (shaken baby syndrome)

6

Which types of TBIs would require actual contact to occur?

skull fracture and epidural hematoma

7

What are the types of primary brain injury?

contusion, hematoma, concussion, diffuse axonal injury, laceration

8

Which type of injury is the most damaging to the brain?

combination of translational, rotational, and angular movement

9

What are the components of a primary brain injury?

nature of force, type of injury, magnitude/duration of impact

10

What is the most potent prostaglandin?

thromboxane A2

11

What are the criteria used in the Glasgow coma scale?

eye response, motor response, verbal response

12

What are the usual locations of brain contusions?

frontal poles, orbital gyri, temporal poles

13

What is the type of contusion with the worst outcome?

countercoup contusion

14

What is the most common type of intracranial hematoma?

epidural hematoma

15

Which artery is most commonly damaged in an epidural hematoma?

middle meningeal artery

16

What is the hallmark of an epidural hematoma?

lucid interval

17

What is the "classic triad" of EDH?

contralateral hemiparesis, dilatation of ipsilateral pupils, lucid interval

18

Where do intracerebral hematomas usually occur?

frontal and temporal poles

19

What is the most common etiology of a concussion?

twisting of brainstem

20

What is pathognomonic for diffuse axonal injury?

axonal retraction balls

21

What are the circulatory stages in severe TBI?

hypoperfusion, hyperemia, vasospasm

22

A sub-falcine herniation results in?

leg weakness

23

Central/Axial Herniation results in?

decreased sensorium/Cushing's triad

24

Posterior herniation results in?

bilateral ptosis/upward gaze paralysis

25

Tonsillar herniation results in?

sudden apnea