LEC 2: The Vertebral Column - 08.18.2014 Flashcards Preview

STRUCTURES - WEEK 1 > LEC 2: The Vertebral Column - 08.18.2014 > Flashcards

Flashcards in LEC 2: The Vertebral Column - 08.18.2014 Deck (63):
1

The skeletal system is composed of two (2) skeletons...

1. Axial Skeleton

2. Appendicular Skeleton

2

Componenets of axial skeleton

1. skull

2. vertebral column

3. sternum

4. ribs

3

Componenets of appendicular skeleton

1. extremities

4

What are the five (5) sections of the vertebral column and how many vertebrae do they have?

1. cervical spine (7)

2. thoracic spine (12)

3. lumbar spine (5)

4. sacral spine (5 - fused)

5. coccygeal spine (4)

TOTAL: 33 vertebrae (typically)

5

Kyphosis

curvature of the spine causing bowing, rounding of back ("hunchback") in thoracic section

 

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Lordosis

abormal curvature of vertebral column in lumbar region, produces swayback deformity

 

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7

Describe the primary curvature of the spine

Primary curvature is concave anteriorly (bending toward anterior)

  • represents original shape of embryo
  • retained in thoracic/sacral regions in adults

8

Describe the secondary curvature of the spine

Secondary curvature is concave posteriorly (bending toward posterior)

  • occurs in cervical/lumbar regions in adults
  • brings center of gravity into vertical line




 

9

Describe the order of curvatures in the spine

1. thoracic kyphosis is first (primary)

2. when infant lifts head, lordosis occurs in cervical region (secondary)

3. when infant begins to crawl, lordosis occurs in lumbar region (secondary)

4. later, sacrum lifts (primary)

10

Dowager's Hump

example of an abnormal vertebral column curvature (extreme kyphosis in thoracic region)

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11

Describe a situation of tranisent lordosis

typically found in pregnant women due to massive shift in center of gravity (lumbar region)

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12

Where does the spinal cord end?

  • Technically, cord ends between L1-L2
  • Does NOT mean that sacral/coccygeal portions of spinal cord do not exist -- just not 1-to-1 with exit wholes

13

Name the parts of a "typical" (lumbar) vertebra

1. body

2. vertebral (neural) arch

  • formed by (2) pedicles and (2) lamina
  • (7) processes project from vertebral arch
    • (2) transverse
    • (4) articular
    • (1) spinous

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How many processes project from the vertebral arch (lumbar) and name them

  • (2) transverse processes
  • (4) articular processes
  • (1) spinous process

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What is the hole between the vertebral body and the vertebral arch called

Vertebral foramen

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cervix

Latin for "neck"; e.g. cervix is the neck of the uterus

17

C1

Atlas; does not have vertebral body and articulates with the bottom of the skull

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C2

Axis; has the dens, which is the body of C1 that has become fused to C2 during development

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C7

Vertebra promenens

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Cervical rib

Rare occasion when (in humans) a rib may attach to C7 (vertebra promenens); may or may not be clinically relevant

21

Distinguishing characteristic of cervical vertebrae

hole (foramen) in transverse processes; vertebral artery and vertebral veins are located here

22

Distinguishing characteristics of thoracic vertebrae

  • increase in size from T1 to T12
  • all thoracic vertebrae articulate with ribs and have either "full" facets or "demi" facets for attachments

23

"Full" facet or "demi" facet

Found in the thoracic vertebrae; imporant for the attachment and articulation of ribs

24

Distinguishing characteristics of lumbar vertebrae

  • largest of the vertebrae
  • lack foramina in the transverse processes
  • lack facets for rib articulation
  • L4 and L5 often involved in disc related injuries due to position and weight transmission

25

lumbaris

Latin for "loin"

26

Distinguishing characteristic of sacral vertebrae

5 fused vertebrae

27

os sacrum

Latin for "Holy bone"; word sacred derived from this because the bone was offered in sacrifice

28

Sacralization of L5

L5 vertebra becomes fused with parts of the sacrum

 

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Lumbarization of S1

S1 vertebra becomes partly unfused from the rest of the sacrum

30

Distinguishing characteristics of coccygeal vertebrae

  • not really fused together
  • vestigal part of tailbone

31

Diagnostic features of non-fused regional vertebrae

Cervical: foramen in transverse process

Thoracic: "full" facet or "demi" facet for rib articulation

Lumbar: absence of foramen in transverse process or facets for rib articulation

32

What is a joint

junction of two (2) parts of the skeleton

33

articulare

Latin for "articulation"; general term for structures coming together

34

What are the two (2) main types of joints

1. synovial (diarthrosis) joints 

2. fibro-cartilaginous (solid) joints

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What are the two (2) types of fibro-cartilaginous joints

1. fibrous (synarthrosis)

2. cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis)

36

Name the three (3) types of fibrous (synarthrosis) joints

1. suture joint

2. gomphosis joint

3. syndesmosis joint

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Name the two (2) types of cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) joints

1. symphysis joint

2. synchondrosis joint

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38

What type of joint is an intervertebral disc

fibrocartilaginous (solid) joint

  • cartilaginous joint
    • symphysis joint

 

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39

Zygapohyseal ("facet") joints

Joints of the vertebral arches; synovial joint

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40

What type of joint is a zygapohyseal joint

synovial joint

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atlanto-occipital joint

joint of the suboccipital region (synovial joint)

 

42

atlanto-axial joint

joint of the suboccipital region (synovial joint)

43

costovertebral joint

joint between rib and body of vertebra (synovial joint)

44

costotransverse joint

joint between rib and process of vertebra (synovial joint)

45

What is a ligament

short band of fibrous, connective tissue which attaches bone to bone; holds structures together and keeps them stable

46

What is a tendon

fibrous connective tissue which attaches muscle to bone

47

aponeurosis

broad, flat tendon that attaches muscles to bone or other muscles

48

anterior longitudinal ligament

  • attaches to base of skull
  • extends to anterior surface of sacrum
  • attaches to vertebral bodies/intervertebral discs

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49

posterior longitudinal ligament

  • posterior surface of vertebral bodies
  • lines anterior surface of vertebral canal
  • attach along length to vertebral bodies/intervertebral discs

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50

ligamentum flavum ligament

  • pass between laminae of adjacent vertebrae
  • thin, broad ligaments
  • form part of posterior surface of vertebral canal
  • each one: posterior surface of lamina of vertebral surface below to anterior surface lamina above

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51

supraspinous ligament

  • connects/passes along tips of vertebral spinous processes from C7 to sacrum
  • above C7 (to skull), more distinct ligamentum nuchae

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interspinous ligaments

  • pass between adjacent vertebral spinous processes
  • attach from base to apex of each spinous process
  • blend with supraspinous ligament posteriorly
  • blend with ligamentum flavum (flava) anteriorly

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53

What type of joints are intervertebral discs

cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) joints

  • symphysis joints
  • symphysis joints are often described as a type of cartilaginous joint found in the axial skeleton, and remains cartilage throughout life

54

Parts of the intervertebral disc

1. outer annulus fibrosis

2. inner nucleus pulposus

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IVF = intervertebral foramen

  • where a spinal nerve is born
  • where nerve roots join together to form the nerve

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radicle

the beginning of a nerve

57

radiculopathy

compression on the beginning of the nerve at the IVF (intervertebral foramen); herniated disc

58

radicular pain

pain emanating from compression on the beginning of the nerve at the IVF; herniated disc

59

herniated disc

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60

sagittal plane, coronal plane, transverse plane

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posterior vs. anterior

dorsal vs. ventral

superior vs. inferior

rostral vs. caudal

medial vs. lateral

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62

Where does the spinal cord end

Spinal cord cell bodies end between L1/L2 vertebral level, but spinal nerves for each segment exit at the level of the corresponding vertebra

  • For nerves of lower spinal cord, this means that they exit vertebral column much lower (more caudally) than their roots

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63

What are the two (2) enlargements of the spinal cord

1. Cervical enlargement (C4/T1)

2. Lumbosacral enlargement 

  • Spinal cord segments L2/S3
  • Vertebral levels T9/T12