LEC 5: Microstructure of Tissues: Epithelial Tissue - 08.19.2014 Flashcards Preview

STRUCTURES - WEEK 1 > LEC 5: Microstructure of Tissues: Epithelial Tissue - 08.19.2014 > Flashcards

Flashcards in LEC 5: Microstructure of Tissues: Epithelial Tissue - 08.19.2014 Deck (55):
1

What are the four (4) specialized tissue types

1. connective

2. epithelial

3. nervous

4. muscle

  • each of these tissues exist in association with each other to form organs

2

What germ layer does epithelial tissue derive from

all three (3) germ layers

  • mesoderm
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm

 

3

What germ layer does connective tissue derive from

mesoderm

4

What germ layer does muscle tissue derive from

mesoderm

5

What germ layer does nervous tissue derive from

ectoderm

6

What type of epithelial tissue derives from the ectoderm

epidermis (skin) derives from the ectoderm

7

What type of epithelial tissue derives from the endoderm

the linings of the GI tract and respiratory tracts derive from endoderm

8

What type of epithelial tissue derives from the mesoderm 

endothelium (linings of blood vessels) and mesothelium (linings of cavities) derive from the mesoderm

9

Describe types of epithelial tissue deriving from the ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm

1. ectoderm = epidermis (skin)

2. endoderm = lining of GI tract, lining of respiratory tract

3. mesoderm = endothelium (lines blood vessels), mesothelium (lines body cavities) 

10

Name the (2) major types of epithelial tissue

1. membranous epithelia -- sheetlike tissues that cover/line surfaces, cavities, and organs of the body

2. glandular epithelia -- perform secretory functions

11

What is membranous epithelia

sheetlike tissues that cover/line surfaces, cavities, organs of the body

12

What is glandular epithelia

epithelia that performs secretory functions

13

Describe five (5) functions of epithelial tissue

1. protection/containment (skin)

2. absorption (intestines)

3. secretion (glands)

4. sensation (neuroepithelium)

5. contractility (myoepithelium)

14

Are epithelial cells polar or nonpolar

polar

15

basement membrane

epithelial tissues are supported by the basement membrane (separates them from underlying supportive tissue)

16

What are the four (4) characteristics of epithelial tissue

1. cells closely bound to one another by membrane specializations (cell junctions) form continuous sheets

2. supported by basement membrane (separates them from underlying supporting tissue)

3. not penetrated by blood vessels

4. epithelial cells are polar

17

Label the parts of the epithelial cell

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A. Apical plasma membrane

B. Lateral plasma membrane

C. Basal-lateral membrane

D. Basal membrane

E. Basement membrane

18

What are the three (3) ways to classify epithelial tissue

1. cell layers

2. morphology

3. surface characteristics

19

If classifying by cell layers, what are the three types of epithelial cells

cell layer classification of epithelial cells

  • simple-one layer
  • stratified-more than one layer
  • pseudostratified-nuclei at different positions

20

If classifying by morphology, what are the three types of epithelial cells

morphological classification of epithelial cells

  • squamous (flat)
  • columnar
  • cuboidal

 

 

 

 

21

If classifying by cell characteristics, what are the three types of epithelial cells

cell characteristics classification of epithelial cells

  • cilia
  • keratin
  • microvilli

22

In this slide of a small blood vessel (H&E Stain), what kind of cells are these

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Simple Squamous Epithelium

 

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23

Collecting tubule in the kidney (Azan stain), what kind of cells are these

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Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

  • note clear basement membrane (blue)

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24

What kind of cells are these

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Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

25

What kind of cells are these

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Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

26

What are the cells the arrows point to

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Simple Squamous Epithelium

Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

27

In this slide (H&E stain) taken from the gall bladder, what cells are visible

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Simple Columnar Epithelium

NB: H&E Stain, not Azan, so basement membrane not evident (Azan Stain = blue basement membrane)

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28

What kind of cells are displayed in this slide of small intestines?

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Simple Columnar Epithelium

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29

What are the arrows pointing to in this slide, and what kind of cells are featured

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Simple Columnar Epithelium

  • black arrows: lymphocytes (very dark circles)
    • type of white blood cell
  • blue arrow: goblet cells 
    • intestines have to have a surface coating, which goblet cells provide

30

What kind of cells are found in this slide

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Simple Columnar Ciliated Epithelium

  • Azan stain, taken of Fallopian tube (oviduct)
  • blue cells, less numerous, not ciliated, have secretory function
  • ciliary action facilitates transport of the ovum from overy to uterus

31

What kind of cells are found in this slide

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Simple Columnar Ciliated Epithelial

  • found in female reproductive tract (Fallopian tubes)

32

What kind of cells are found in this slide

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Simple Columnar Ciliated Epithelial

  • found in female reproductive tract (Fallopian tubes)


     

33

What kind of cells are found in this slide

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Pseudostratified Columnar Ciliated Epithelium

  • trachea

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34

What kind of cells are found in this slide

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Pseudostratified Columnar Ciliated Epithelium

  • always found in trachea

35

What kind of cells are found in this slide

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Pseudostratified Columnar Ciliated Epithelium

  • always found in trachea
  • propel mucous and entrap particles

36

Characteristics of Stratified Epithelial Tissue

  • two or more layers of cells
  • protective function
  • classified based on the shape and structure of the surface cell

37

What kind of cells are depicted in this diagram

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Stratified Squamous Epithelium

  • note cuboidal cells on the bottom
  • withstand chronic abraison
  • located in oral cavity, esophagus, cervix, vagina

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38

What kind of cells are found in this slide

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Stratified Squamous Epithelium

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39

What kind of cells are found in this slide

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Stratified Squamous Epithelium

  • esophagus
  • differentiate and divide, becoming more squamous as move up
  • cytoplasm flattens out as cell becomes more squamous

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40

What kind of cells are found in this slide

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Stratified Squamous Keratinized Epithelium

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41

What kind of cells are found in this slide

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Stratified Cuboidal Epithelial

  • larger excretory ducts of exocrine glands (e.g. salivary glands)

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42

What kind of cells are found in this slide

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Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium

  • excretory duct from parotid gland

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43

What kind of cells does this diagram depict

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Transitional Epithelium

  • sometimes are binucleated cells at apical surface
  • pillowy surface

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44

What kind of cells does this slide depict

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Transitional Epithelium

  • sometimes are binucleated cells at apical surface
  • pillowy surface

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45

What kind of cells are found in this slide

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Transitional Epithelium

  • empty urinary bladder
  • binucleate, prominent nucleoli
  • in full urinary bladder, transitional epithelial cells will accomodate stretch and flatten

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46

Glandular Epithelia

  • invagination of epithelial surfaces
  • formed during embryonic development
  • proliferation of epithelial cells into underlying connective tissue

47

Proliferation of exocrine glands from epithelial cells

  • cells divide
  • dip down into connective tissue but maintain contact with surface

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48

Proliferation of endocrine glands from epithelial cells

  • cells divide
  • dip down into connective tissue
  • endocrine gland does NOT maintain contact with cell surface
  • releases hormones into blood stream

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49

What are the two (2) types of glands

Exocrine Glands

  • Maintain continuity with epithelial surface
  • Discharge secretions via ducts

Endocrine Glands

  • Degeneration of duct 
  • Islands of epithelial secretory tissue
  • Secretory products (hormones) go into blood

50

Where do endocrine glands release their hormones

Into underlying connective tissues/blood vessels via exocytosis

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51

What are the three (3) modes of exocrine secretion

1. Merocrine

  • most common
  • no loss of membrane (e.g. goblet cell)

2. Apocrine

  • secretory product in vesicles (e.g. mammary gland)

3. Holocrine

  • whole cell broken for discharge of products (e.g. sebaceous gland)

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52

What cells are visible in this slide

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Cuboidal Cells

  • serous gland with ducts

53

What cells are visible in this slide

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Cuboidal Cells

  • mucous gland composed of many cuboidal epithelial cells

54

Synthesis of mucigen

  • Protein component synthesized in RER
  • Goes to Golgi
  • Carbohydrate attached in Gogli
  • secreted at steady basal rate, but local irritation with cause the release of entire mucigen content

55

Function of Goblet Cells in:

1. upper GI tract

2. lower GI tract

3. respiratory tract

  • In uppder GI tract, provide protective coat against autodigestion
  • In lower GI tract, provide lubrication
  • In respiratory tract, prevent drying, helps humidify inspired air, acts as sticky surface to trap dust particles and microorganisms before they reach the lungs