Leccture 18 - Case-Control Studies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Leccture 18 - Case-Control Studies Deck (10)
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What is a case-control study?

-observational study
-those with the disease of interest are the cases and those without are the controls
-group-assignment is based on disease status
-useful in studying rare diseases or outbreaks
-generates odds ratio


What type of ratio is a case-control study most useful for generating?

-odds ratio


What is the scenario where the phrase “randomly selected” can be used but not indicate an interventional study?

-in a case-control study where there are more cases or controls than needed for the study so those observed are randomly selected


What are the strengths of case-control studies?

-good for assessing multiple exposures of one outcome
-useful in rare diseases
-useful in determining associations
-less expensive and time consuming
-avoid ethical issues


What should be taken into account when selecting controls for case-control studies?

-controls should be as equal as possible to cases but without disease
-should be picked regardless to exposure status


What is a case-crossover study design?

-case control study where subjects act as their own control
-look at patient before they were a case and assess what exposures they had in between that may be responsible for the change


What is a nested case-control study?

-a case-control study that comes out of a prospective study (such as cohort or interventional)


What are the types of sampling of controls in nested case-control studies?

Survivor sampling:
-sample non-diseased individuals (survivors) AT THE END of a study

Base sampling:
-sample non-diseased individuals AT THE START of a study

Risk-set sampling:
-sample non-diseased individuals DURING STUDY period AT SAME TIME case was diagnosed


What are the common types of bias affecting case-control studies?

-selection bias
-recall bias


What method is commonly used to control for bias in case-control studies?

Individual matching:
-individuals are matched based on criteria making them similar

Group matching:
-proportional matching of cases and controls to make the groups similar (ie. % of gender)