Lecture 14 - General Methodological Concepts of Research Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 14 - General Methodological Concepts of Research Deck (20)
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1

What are the two types of research or study design?

-quantitative: numbers used to represent data

-qualitative: words used to represent data

2

What are the two types of quantitative study designs?

-interventional: participants are forcibly allocated into study groups

-observational: participants are not forcibly allocated into study groups

3

What is a population?

-all the individuals making up a common group

4

What is a sample?

-subset of the population that is studied, ideally representative of the population

5

What is a null hypothesis?

-a conservative hypothesis that states that there will be no difference between groups

-goal is typically to reject the hypothesis as it is the opposite of desired outcome

6

What are the three stances a null hypothesis can take?

-superiority: “I’m not better”

-noninferiority: “I’m worse than”

-equivalency “I’m not equivalent”

7

What is probability sampling?

-when every part of the population has a known probability of being in the sample

8

What is simple random sampling?

Numbers are randomly assigned and subjects are either picked by random selection of numbers or by starting somewhere on the list and sequentially picking subjects

9

What is systematic random sampling?

-numbers are randomly assigned then from a random point subjects are selected every Nth number from that point

10

What is stratified simple random sampling?

-stratification of possible sample by desired characteristic followed by use of simple random sampling within strata

11

What is stratified disproportionate random sampling?

-disproportionate use of stratified simple random sampling when strata are not at desired proportion with the population

12

What is multi-stage random sampling?

-simple random sampling at multiple stages (ie. county, zip code, clinic, individual)

13

What is cluster multi-stage random sampling?

-multi-stage random sampling where all elements at a stage are selected

14

What is non-probability sampling?

-quasi-systematic sampling that is not truly random
-ie. selection of last names beginning with M-Z, individuals referenced by selected-peers

15

What is the difference between patient-oriented outcome and disease-oriented outcomes?

Disease-oriented:
-gives insight into disease process that a patient will likely be unable to appreciate in a clinical setting
-ie. vitamin E is a good antioxidant

Patient-oriented:
-gives outcomes that are meaningful to patients and that they can understand
-ie. vitamin E does not prevent cancer or cardiovascular disease

16

What is the difference between individual outcomes and combined outcomes?

Individual outcome:
-probability of a single outcome occurring
-ie. death

Combined outcome:
-probability at least one outcome from with in a possible group of outcomes
-ie. death, MI, target-vessel revascularization, or major bleeding

17

What are the 4 key principles of bioethics?

Autonomy:
-must decide to participate without outside influence
-must have complete understanding of risks and benefits

Beneficence
-must do good for the patient, not just society

Justice
-equal and fair treatment for all

Nonmaleficence
-do no harm

18

What is the difference between consent and assent?

Consent: agreement to participate of those legally and mentally capable

Assent: agreement to participate by those mentally capable but not legally capable (typically due to age)

19

What is an institutional review board (IRB)?

-“ethics committee”
-reviews all human studies prior to the studies beginning
-goal is to protect the rights of the study subjects

20

What is a data safety and monitoring board?

-monitors and reviews the study as it progresses looking for undue risk/benefit between groups