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Flashcards in Lecture 1 Deck (25):
1

Define: Restoration Ecology

A field of study that provides scientific background for practical ecological restoration

2

Define: Ecological Restoration

The practice of restoring ecosystems by practicioners at specific sites

3

Define: Restoration

Re-establishing ecosystem habitats to original structure and species composition

4

Define: Reclamation

Stabilization of terrain, assurance of public safety, aesthetic improvement, and returning land to a "useful purpose"

5

Define: Re-vegitation

Establishment of one or few species, associated with reclamation

6

Define: rehabilitation

Focus in historic or pre-existing ecosystems as models or reference. Emphasizes the reparation of ecosystem processes, productivity and services

7

Define: Mitigation

an action intended to compensate environmental damage. commonly required as a condition of development that destroys the environment (lip-stick on a pig)

8

Define: Remediation

Removal of pollution or contaminants from environmental media such as soil, groundwater, sediment, or surface water.

9

Define: Rewilding

Large scale conservation aimed at restoring and protecting core wilderness areas. Includes providing connectivity to wilderness areas and re-introducing apex predators and keystone species.

10

What is ecological engineering?

Using natural materials, living organisms and the physical-chemical environment to achieve specific human goals

11

Define: Enhancement

Increasing the value, quality, extent of an ecosystem (good-->better)

12

What are 4 major contributions to decreasing human mortality

Disinfection of drinking water
Pasteurization of food
immunizations
modern sanitization

13

What is "the great leap forward"/

Mankind learned how to relay large amounts of info quickly

14

What are the 3 phases of industrial revolution?

1. ~1760- end of feudalism, agricultural revolution, cottage industries, scientific revolution, protestant work ethic, steam engine--> social and technological events and inventions
2. ~1850+ steam engine became portable, transportation, developed into internal combustion engine
3. 1990 computer era.

15

where was industry originally located?

close to resources, especilly water

16

How are dead zones created?

fresh water is warmer and less dense than cold salt water. creates stratification when river enters ocean. fresh water has oxygen, but doesnt mix with ocean salt water because of stratification. Phytoplankton living in fresh water eventually dies and falls into salt water. decomposition process removes the small amount of oxygen in salt water, creating anoxic conditions

17

Whats the difference between anoxic and anaerobic?

Anoxic: chemically bound oxygen (NO3) in water
Anaerobic: no free oxygen in water

18

What are the global problems with soil?

Contamination, salinization, erosion

19

What are the global problems with air quality?

Pollution transition from local to global with increased population. acid rain, CFC's and Greenhouse Gasses

20

What is the unit of measurement for ozone?

Dobson Unit

21

How thick is the Ozone on average

300 dobson units

22

How thick is the ozone at the "hole"

100 dobson units

23

how is an ozone hole created?

Chemical reactions involving chlorine and bromine cause the ozone to be destroyed

24

Where is the ozone hole created?

above antarctica, austrailia and newzealand

25

what 4 ways have humans caused ecosystem stress and species destruction?

Transformation of the landscape
overexploitation of species
pollution
introduction of alien species