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1

2

What are the 6 functions of the respiratory system

  1. gas exchange process
  2. Regulation of body/blood pH by CO2 and associated H2CO3

  3. Communication with sounds and pheromones

  4. Metabolism of endogenous and exogenous substances

  5. Immune function

  6. Thermoregulation 

3

What are the general steps of the gas exchange process?

  1. ventilation
  2. external respiration
  3. pulmonary gas exchange

4

what happens during the ventilation step of gas exchange

inhalation and exhalation

5

what happens during the external respiration step of gas exchange

pulmonary gas exchange

6

what happens during the internal respiration step of gas exchange

  • Systemic tissue gas exchange
    • Deliver oxygen (O2)   to support tissue metabolism
    • Eliminate carbon dioxide (CO2) from tissues 
       

7

Describe the first 4 steps in the processes involved in gas exchange

  1. Modification of rhythm and rate in the brainstem (medulla oblongata and pons)- allows for a smooth transition between inspiration and expiration and normal respiratory rate
  2. Lung ventilation- inhalation and exhalation of air
  3. Distribution of air via the conducting airways
  4. Diffusion of air  pulmonary capillary level

8

describe the last 4 steps in the processes involved in gas exchange

5. Perfusion of alveoli by blood in pulmonary capillaries

6. O2 to the tissues, CO2 away from tissues   

7. O2 and CO2 carriers (ie- hemoglobin) in the blood and acid-base balance

8. O2 and CO2 sensors that send information regarding the concentration  of gases to the brainstem to modify the respiratory rhythm.

9

how does oxygen consumption relate to metabolism (increase in speed during a run)

increase in oxygen consumption will increase linearly with speed

10

how does respiratory system regulate the body/blood pH

  • CO2 will be broken down by carbonic anhydrase and will end up creating a H+ ion
    • pH will go down and become more acidic
  • opposite is true with oxygen
    • H+ ion will be taken up
    • pH will go up, become more basic

11

how do animals communicate with the respiratory system

  1. sounds
  2. pheromones

12

Give an example of how the respiratory system's function can be metabolism

  • ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) from pulmonary endothelium converts Angiotensin I to Angiotensin II 

13

what are 2 things ACE generally does in the body?

  1. vasoconstriction,
  2. increase blood pressure

14

How does the respiratory generally provide immune function?

provides primary, secondary, and tertiary lines of defense

15

how does respiratory system provide primary immune function?

 

  • Epithelial lining
  • Mucociliary escalator- defense against inhaled dusts, toxic gases, and infectious agents

16

how does respiratory system provide second line of defense?

 

  • Nonspecific immunity
    • Neutrophils,
    • Eosinophils,
    • Pulmonary macrophages
       

17

how does respiratory system provide the third line of defense?

specific immunity

18

how does respiratory system do thermoregulation

  • sudoriferous glands (sweat glands) will increase surface area to help dissipate heat
    • (panting)

19

what is synonymous with ventilation

respiration and breathing

20

Bulk flow of gases into and out of the respiratory tract due to what?

due to pressure gradient (high to low pressure)            

21

where is oxygens final destination during respiration?

eventually transported to the cells and then mitochondria. 

22

  1. what happens to oxygen in the mitochondria?
  2. what is a name for this process?

 

  1. The cellular metabolic process by which O2 is taken into the mitochondria,
    • glucose is oxidized to pyruvate,
    • ATP is released,
    • CO2 and oxidized products are released.
  2. Aerobic cellular respiration

23

  1. what are primary respiratory symbols? 
    • how are they generally written
  2. secondary?
    • how are they generally written

  3. final symbol?

  1. Primary Symbols- Physical quantities are measured,
    • always uppercase

  2. Secondary symbols- Location of the gas or blood

    • can be uppercase or lowercase

  3. final symbol- gas measured

24

What do the following symbols stand for

  1. P

  2. V

  3. S

     

  1. P=  Pressure, partial pressure, or tension of a gas 

  2. V=  Volume of gas

  3. S=  Saturation of Hb (hemoglobin) with O2

25

What do the following symbols stand for

  1. F

  2. Q

  3. D

  1. F=  Fractional concentration of a gas

    • FiO2 is the fraction or percentage of oxygen in the space being measured.

    • Veterinary patients experiencing dyspnea 

      • FiO2 of 0.21

      • Oxygen tank FiO2 up to 1.00

  2. Q=  Volume of blood

  3. D=   Diffusing capacity

26

What do the following symbols stand for

  1. I
  2. E
  3. T

  1. I     inspired gas          
  2. E     expired gas 
  3. T     tidal gas
  4. D   dead space

27

What do the following symbols stand for

  1. A or alv
  2. L
  3. b

  1. A or alv=  alveolar gas
  2. L=  transpulmonary
  3. b=    blood

28

What do the following symbols stand for

  1. a
  2. v
  3. c
  4. c’

  1. a=     arterial blood 
  2. v=   venous blood
  3. c=     capillary blood
  4. c´=   end capillary blood

29

What do the following symbols stand for

  1. aw
  2. pl

  1. aw= airway

  2. pl=  pleural

30

  1. What does a Dot above the primary symbol represents
  2. Bar above the secondary symbol represents 
  3. Prime after the secondary symbol indicates

  1. Dot above the primary symbol represents the first measurable quantity with respect to time L/min
  2. Bar above the secondary symbol represents a mean or mixed sample
  3. Prime after the secondary symbol indicates at the “end” of a structure or respiratory maneuver (ie- expiration).