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1

Define Bacterium:

Unicellular microorganism that lacks defined organelles

2

Bacteria may have another copy of their single chromosome, the second copy is called a _______. 

Plasmid

3

A singe-celled bacterium with rippled cell wall is called _________. 

Xylella fastidiosa

4

What is Xylella fastidiosa? 

A single-celled bacterium with rippled cell walls. 

5

How do bacteria reproduce? 

They reproduce by binary fission....cells divide into 2 exact copies. 

6

What are some typical symptoms of bacterial pathogens? 

  • Infect through natural opening or would
  • Angular borders
  • Chlorotic halo
  • Water soaked rot
  • Tissue blight
  • Rotten smell

7

What are some Bacterial Disease Management practices?

  • Use disease free stock plants
  • Choose disease resistant cultivars
  • Create environmental conditions that do not favor disease
  • Eradicate affected plant material
  • Rotate Crops
  • Copper containing fungicides

(EXCLUDE & ERADICATE!) 

8

Management and Control practices for Bacterial Blight:

  • Culture indexing
  • Sterilize Propagating areas
  • Use sterile planting materials
  • Use disease-free stock plants
  • Quarantine plants by source
  • Eradicate affected plant material 

 

(EXCLUSION AND ERADICATION!!!) 

9

Branch Dieback is also called ______. 

"sheperds crook"

10

Management and Control of Fire Blight:

  • Spray copper fungicides
  • Use resistant varieties
  • Remove affected plant material

11

What is Phytoplasma?

A simpler form of bacteria that doesn't have cell walls.  They are vectored by leaf hoppers.  

The diseases they cause are generally called "yellows" 

 

12

Define Virus:

Ultramiucroscopic entity that contains genetic material within a protein coat that can only reproduce using the metabolic processes of a suitable host cell.  

13

How does a virus reproduce?

Uses a host cell to make copies of itself. 

Cannot reproduce without a host. 

14

What are typical symptoms of viral pathogens?

15

What was one of the first viruses that we started to study? 

Tobacco Mosaic Virus

16

What are the typical symptoms of viral pathogens:

  • abnormal growth
  • abnormal color
  • look for the vector (what spreads the virus from plant to plant)
  • Symptoms can take a while to show up or dont show up at all

17

What are the Vectors of a Virus?

  • Primary vectors are insects with piercing, sucking mouthparts
  • nematodes
  • fungi
  • mechanical
  • infected plant parts

18

What are the Tospovirus Vectors?

  • Western Flower Thrips
  • Onion Thrips

19

Tospovirus Management.....

  • Use disease free stock plants
  • Eradicate thrips
  • Eradicate affected plant material
  • Eradicate weeeds and alternate hosts
  • Quarantine plant material by source

20

Thrips Management...

  • Monitor populations with sticky cards
  • Use petunia as a trap crop
  • Eradicate weeds and alternate hosts
  • Exclude thrips from outside house
  • Quarantine plant material by source
  • Make application of labeled insecticide

21

What are the 3 types of parasitic plants?

  • Epiphyte - Orchid, Spanish Moss
  • Hemi parasite - Mistletoe
  • True parasite - Dodder, Witchweed, Dwarf mistletoe