Lecture 1 - Anatomy Of Abdomen Flashcards Preview

LSS 2 - Abdomen, Alimentary and Urinary systems > Lecture 1 - Anatomy Of Abdomen > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 1 - Anatomy Of Abdomen Deck (74)
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How is the abdominopelvic cavity separated from the thorax and from each other?


Abdominal and pelvic cavity are continuous, with the diaphragm separating the 2 cavities.

Upper part of abdominal cavity extends beneath thoracic cage and the pelvic inlet/brim arbitrarily separates the abdominal from the pelvic cavity



What are the visceral structures present in the abdominopelvic  cavity?

Stomach, duodenum, small/large intestines

Liver, pancreas, spleen

Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder

Reproductive organs

Abdominal vessels


What are the names of the 9 regions of the abdomen?

R/L hypochondriac regions, epigastric, R/L lumbar regions, ubilical, R/L iliac region, Suprapubic region


Why do we divide it into 9 regions?


To be able to understand where the pain may be coming from in the patient's deep anatomy



What are the 4 quadrants of the abdomen?

Transumbilical plane and midsagittal line separates it


What is the surface anatomy of the antero-lateral abdominal wall?

Costal margin, xiphoid process, iliac crest, ASIS, pubic symphysis/tubercle

Umbilicus, epigastric fossa

Rectus abdominis, linea alba and linea semilunaris

Abdominal wall muscle sheets



How are the abdominal wall layers of tissue organised?



What are the three flank sheet muscles, where are they present and what do they contribute to?

Obliques and Transversus abdominis

3 muscles are separate in flanks - 3 flat muscle fibres continue anteriorly as aponeurotic sheets

Contribute to the rectus sheath


What are the functions of the three flank sheet muscles?

Compress abdomen and increase the intra-abdominal pressure to aid expiration, evacuation of urine, faeces, parturition, heavy lifting

Supports viscera - guarding mainly the intestines

Flex and rotate the trunk


What is the external oblique attached to?

External surface of lower 8 ribs; free posterior border; fans out to attach to xiphoid process, linea alba, pubic crest/tubercle, anterior half of iliac crest


What is the inguinal ligament formed from?

Aponeurosis fuses medially with rectus sheath

Lower aponeurotic edge is rolled inwards and forms the inguinal ligament from ASIS to pubic tubercle


What is the internal obique attached to?

Laterally: thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest (anterior 2/3rd), inguinal ligament (lateral half)

Medial: Lower 3 ribs and costal cartilage, xiphoid process, rectus sheath, conjoint tendon


Where is the Transversus abdominis attached to?

Lateral: lower 6 costal cartilages, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest (anterior 2/3rd), inguinal ligament (lateral 1/3rd)

Medial: xiphoid process, linea alba (rectus sheath), symphysis pubis, conjoint tendon


Where does the Rectus abdominis attach to?

Superior: 5-7 costal cartilages, xiphoid process

Inferior: Symphysis pubis, pubic crest


How is the rectus sheet formed and arranged?

Formed by aponeurosis of 3 muscles

Above umbilicus: internal oblique aponeurosis splits and encloses rectus abdominis, with the aponeuroses of external oblique in front and the transversus behind the rectus muscle

Below the umbilicus: all 3 aponeurotic layers are anterior to the rectus muscle


How is the rectus sheath formed?

By the aponeuroses of external/internal obliques and transversus abdominis muscles


What are the posterior wall muscles?

Diaphragm, Transversus abdominis, quadratus lumborum, psoas major, iliacus muscle


Where does Psoas Major attach to and what is its function?

Attaches at bodies and disks of all 5 lumbar vertebrae and lesser trochanter of femur

Flexor of hip and trunk


What are the attachments and the function of the Quadratus lumborum?

Attaches to lower border of 12th rib and transverse process of 5th lumbar vertebra and adjacent iliac crest

Stabilises 12th rib and a lateral flexor of the trunk


What is aponeurosis?

Sheet of pearly white fibrous tissue which takes the place of a tendon in sheet-like muscles having a wide area of attachment.


What is the blood supply of the rectus muscle?

Superior epigastric artery (terminal branch of internal thoracic), inferior epigastric artery (branch of external iliac)

2 vessels enter the rectus sheath and anastamose forming a potential bypass to abdominal aorta


What is the motor nerve and dermatomes supply to the abdominal wall?

Motor: Segmentally supplied T7-12 and L1

External oblique (T7-11), internal oblique/Transversus (T7-12 and L1), Rectus (T7-12)

Dermatomes: epigastrum (T7), umbilicus (T10), Inguinal ligament L1


What are the nerves that supply the posterior abdominal wall?

Subcostal nerve (T12), iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves (L1) supply the antero-lateral abdominal wall


What are the components of the skeletal framework of the abdomen and pelvis?

Sternum, xiphoid process, costal margin and cartilages and lower ribs, iliac crest, iliac fossa and anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS), pubic symphysis, pubic tubercle, superior pubic ramus, thoracic/lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, pelvic bones


Name the 8 parts that are shown by the arrows:


How are the 9 regions of the abdomen separated?

Separated by the midclavicular lines and the subcostal plane (L2) and intertubercular plane (L5)


What are the anterior abdominal wall muscles?

Paired vertical rectus abdominis muscles within rectus sheath


What are the lateral abdominal wall muscles?

3 flat sheet-like muscles:

External oblique, Internal oblique, transversus abdominis


What are the posterior abdominal wall muscles?

Post vertebral muscles: Erector spinae group

Psoas, quadratus lumborum and iliacus muscles


What direction are the external oblique muscle fibres directed?

Downwards and forwards - putting your hands in a waistcoat pocket