Lecture 1 - Anatomy Of Abdomen Flashcards Preview

LSS 2 - Abdomen, Alimentary and Urinary systems > Lecture 1 - Anatomy Of Abdomen > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 1 - Anatomy Of Abdomen Deck (74)
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1

How is the abdominopelvic cavity separated from the thorax and from each other?

 

Abdominal and pelvic cavity are continuous, with the diaphragm separating the 2 cavities.

Upper part of abdominal cavity extends beneath thoracic cage and the pelvic inlet/brim arbitrarily separates the abdominal from the pelvic cavity

 

2

What are the visceral structures present in the abdominopelvic  cavity?

Stomach, duodenum, small/large intestines

Liver, pancreas, spleen

Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder

Reproductive organs

Abdominal vessels

3

What are the names of the 9 regions of the abdomen?

R/L hypochondriac regions, epigastric, R/L lumbar regions, ubilical, R/L iliac region, Suprapubic region

4

Why do we divide it into 9 regions?

 

To be able to understand where the pain may be coming from in the patient's deep anatomy

 

5

What are the 4 quadrants of the abdomen?

Transumbilical plane and midsagittal line separates it

6

What is the surface anatomy of the antero-lateral abdominal wall?

Costal margin, xiphoid process, iliac crest, ASIS, pubic symphysis/tubercle

Umbilicus, epigastric fossa

Rectus abdominis, linea alba and linea semilunaris

Abdominal wall muscle sheets

7

 

How are the abdominal wall layers of tissue organised?

 

8

What are the three flank sheet muscles, where are they present and what do they contribute to?

Obliques and Transversus abdominis

3 muscles are separate in flanks - 3 flat muscle fibres continue anteriorly as aponeurotic sheets

Contribute to the rectus sheath

9

What are the functions of the three flank sheet muscles?

Compress abdomen and increase the intra-abdominal pressure to aid expiration, evacuation of urine, faeces, parturition, heavy lifting

Supports viscera - guarding mainly the intestines

Flex and rotate the trunk

10

What is the external oblique attached to?

External surface of lower 8 ribs; free posterior border; fans out to attach to xiphoid process, linea alba, pubic crest/tubercle, anterior half of iliac crest

11

What is the inguinal ligament formed from?

Aponeurosis fuses medially with rectus sheath

Lower aponeurotic edge is rolled inwards and forms the inguinal ligament from ASIS to pubic tubercle

12

What is the internal obique attached to?

Laterally: thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest (anterior 2/3rd), inguinal ligament (lateral half)

Medial: Lower 3 ribs and costal cartilage, xiphoid process, rectus sheath, conjoint tendon

13

Where is the Transversus abdominis attached to?

Lateral: lower 6 costal cartilages, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest (anterior 2/3rd), inguinal ligament (lateral 1/3rd)

Medial: xiphoid process, linea alba (rectus sheath), symphysis pubis, conjoint tendon

14

Where does the Rectus abdominis attach to?

Superior: 5-7 costal cartilages, xiphoid process

Inferior: Symphysis pubis, pubic crest

15

How is the rectus sheet formed and arranged?

Formed by aponeurosis of 3 muscles

Above umbilicus: internal oblique aponeurosis splits and encloses rectus abdominis, with the aponeuroses of external oblique in front and the transversus behind the rectus muscle

Below the umbilicus: all 3 aponeurotic layers are anterior to the rectus muscle

16

How is the rectus sheath formed?

By the aponeuroses of external/internal obliques and transversus abdominis muscles

17

What are the posterior wall muscles?

Diaphragm, Transversus abdominis, quadratus lumborum, psoas major, iliacus muscle

18

Where does Psoas Major attach to and what is its function?

Attaches at bodies and disks of all 5 lumbar vertebrae and lesser trochanter of femur

Flexor of hip and trunk

19

What are the attachments and the function of the Quadratus lumborum?

Attaches to lower border of 12th rib and transverse process of 5th lumbar vertebra and adjacent iliac crest

Stabilises 12th rib and a lateral flexor of the trunk

20

What is aponeurosis?

Sheet of pearly white fibrous tissue which takes the place of a tendon in sheet-like muscles having a wide area of attachment.

21

What is the blood supply of the rectus muscle?

Superior epigastric artery (terminal branch of internal thoracic), inferior epigastric artery (branch of external iliac)

2 vessels enter the rectus sheath and anastamose forming a potential bypass to abdominal aorta

22

What is the motor nerve and dermatomes supply to the abdominal wall?

Motor: Segmentally supplied T7-12 and L1

External oblique (T7-11), internal oblique/Transversus (T7-12 and L1), Rectus (T7-12)

Dermatomes: epigastrum (T7), umbilicus (T10), Inguinal ligament L1

23

What are the nerves that supply the posterior abdominal wall?

Subcostal nerve (T12), iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves (L1) supply the antero-lateral abdominal wall

24

What are the components of the skeletal framework of the abdomen and pelvis?

Sternum, xiphoid process, costal margin and cartilages and lower ribs, iliac crest, iliac fossa and anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS), pubic symphysis, pubic tubercle, superior pubic ramus, thoracic/lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, pelvic bones

25

Name the 8 parts that are shown by the arrows:

26

How are the 9 regions of the abdomen separated?

Separated by the midclavicular lines and the subcostal plane (L2) and intertubercular plane (L5)

27

What are the anterior abdominal wall muscles?

Paired vertical rectus abdominis muscles within rectus sheath

28

What are the lateral abdominal wall muscles?

3 flat sheet-like muscles:

External oblique, Internal oblique, transversus abdominis

29

What are the posterior abdominal wall muscles?

Post vertebral muscles: Erector spinae group

Psoas, quadratus lumborum and iliacus muscles

30

What direction are the external oblique muscle fibres directed?

Downwards and forwards - putting your hands in a waistcoat pocket