Lecture 1: Cells Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 1: Cells Deck (57):
1

Nucleotide

Monomers in DNA. A sugar (deoxyribose), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base (A,G,T,C). Each sugar linked via phosphate group.

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Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)

the transcribed form of DNA that leads to the synthesis of proteins. backbone contains ribose instead of deoxyribose. Single stranded

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Nucleic Acids

Long polymers of nucleotide monomers that are linked via phosphodiester bonds. (RNA and DNA)

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Nucleotide

subunits of DNA and RNA. Contain nitrogenous base, five carbon sugar, and phosphate group or groups. (pyrimidines= Cytosine and Thymine, Purines=Guanine and Adenine)

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nucleoside

nitrogenous base linked to sugar (No phosphates)

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Ribonucleotide

Ex. ATP

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Pyrimidines

6 membered ring. Cytosine and Thymine(and uracil).
Think Cut The Pie

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Purine

Pyrimdine ring with an additional five membered ring attached (Adenine and Guanine)

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mRNA

Encode protein, intermediate molecule that encodes a final product of proteins. Located in Cytosol and ER. Short lived and frequently produced and degraded. 3-5% of RNA in a eukaryotic cell.

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tRNA

mRNA translation. Located in cytosol and ER

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rRNA

mRNA translation. in Cytosol and ER. Majority of RNA is rRNA.

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Transcriptional unit

one segment of DNA which is transcribed into a single product. most encode mRNA

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snRNA

Small nuclear RNA. HAs role in splicing mRNA.

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miRNA

Micro RNA. regulate gene expression. Endogenous

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siRNA

Small interfering RNA. Regulate gene expression. Exogenous

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RISC (RNA induced silencing complex)

uses ssRNA to complementary base pair with an mRNA molecule and inhibit translation or induces degradation.

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Complementary base pairing

Pyrimidines Cytosine and Thymine pair with Purines Adenine and Guanine in DNA via non covalent H bonds.

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Peptide bond

covalent bond between two adjacent amino acids and it is always between the positively charged amino and negativelty charged carboxyl groups.

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AA's with polar side chains

Aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, lysine, histidine, asparagine glutamine, serine, threonine, tyrosine

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Negatively charged side chains

Aspartic acid, Glutamic acid

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Positively charged side chains

Arginine, Lysine, Histidine

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Uncharged but polar side chains

Asparagine, Glutamine, serine, threonine, tyrosine

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Condensation reaction

Forms a glycosidic bond between two free hydroxyls, one on each sugar. This reaction expels water

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Hydrolysis

Addition of water reforms the free hydroxyl residues and splits the glycosidic bond.

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Saturated

no double bonds

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Unsaturated

Contain 1 or more double bonds.

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Lipids

hydrophobic and insoluble in water.

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Fatty acids

contains hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain/tail and a hydrophilic carboxyl group. hydrocarbon chain is either saturated (no double bonds) or unsaturated (1 or more double bonds).

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Triacylglycerols

fatty acids stored in the cytoplasm. contain 3 fatty acid chains and a glycerol molecule. can be broken down for energy use into first free fatty acid chains and a glycerol molecule then again into two carbon units that are identical to those derived from glycolysis. Triacylglycerols are the preferred form of long term storage because they weigh far less than sugars.

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Phospholipids

make up cell membranes and are composed of two fatty acid chains, glycerol, a hydrophilic phosphate group and a small hydrophilic group (most often choline). They are amphipathic -> contain a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail portion. Make up lipid bilayer.

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Amphipathic (or Amphiphilic)

contain both a hydrophilic portion and hydrophobic portion (like phospholipids)

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Gram positive

Bacteria that contains several layers of peptidoglycan

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Gram negative

single layer of peptidoglycan

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Prokaryotes

Contain circular Chromosome. Bacteria. Contain rigid cell walls. No organelles. Archaebacteria exist in extreme environments while Eubacteria are the rest and contain diseaase causing bacteria. Cell walls consist of peptidoglycan.

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Eukaryotes

More complex than Prokaryotes. Cells always surrounded by plasma membrane. Contains organelles and cytoskeleton. DNA is linear and in the nucleus.

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Nascent

unfolded form of a protein.

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Chaperones

Help fold a protein into final form that is more energetically favorable.

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Aldehyde

-CHO, Involved in closing of sugar into ring when reacting with free hydroxyl on other terminus.

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ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)

A ribonucleotide used to store energy released during metabolic breakdown of ingested organic compounds. Energy is stored in the phosphoanhydride bonds between phosphate groups. Hydrolysis of these groups releases energy.

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Carbohydrates

(CH2O)n. Sugars. Polymers of monosaccharides (disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides are formed by linking simple sugars together via condensation reactoin in which a glycosidic bond is formed between two free hydroyls. Used for cellular energy, especially glucose. (Glycogen in animals, starch in plans).

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Cellulose

Mechanic support in plants. Linkages cannot be broken down by human digestive enzymes.

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Deoxyribose

In DNA. Ribose that has 1 less oxygen

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Disaccharide

2 monosaccharides linked by glycosidic bond

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Enantiomers

Same formula but mirror images (D or L)

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Essential Amino Acids

Threonine, Methionine, Lysine, Valine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Histidine, Phenylalanine, Tryptophan. Cannot be synthesized so must be consumed through diet.

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Nitrogen fixation

the incorporation of nitrogen into organic molecules.Energetically expensive.

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Glucose

C6H12O6. Most important monosaccharide used for cellular energy. Broken down into glycolosis to form ATP and other cofactors.

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Glycolipids

lipids with carbohydrates attahced via glycosidic bonds

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Glycolysis

break down of glucose and forms pyruvate with the production of two molecules of ATP

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Glycoproteins

any of a class of proteins that have carbohydrate groups attached to the polypeptide chain

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Hydroxyl

-OH

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Isomer

Same formula, different structure ( Glucose and mannose)

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Nucleoside Triphosphate

a type of nucleotide. contains a nucleoside bound to three phosphate groups

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Oligosaccharide

3-10 sugars bound by glycosidic bond.

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Phosphoanhydride bond

where energy is stored in ATP

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ribose

five carbon sugar

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starch

form of glucose stored in large polysaccharides in plants