Lecture 1: Eye pgs 1-12 Flashcards Preview

Neuroanatomy Final > Lecture 1: Eye pgs 1-12 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 1: Eye pgs 1-12 Deck (83):
1

What is the transition from neural to non-neural retina called?

Ora serrata

2

What is the site where axons exit the eye and enter the optic nerve?

Optic disc

3

What is the depressed area within the pigmented macula lutea?

fovea centralis

4

What is the area of greatest visual acuity?

Fovea centralis

5

What takes of the aqueous humor and helps to maintain aqueous humor amount?

Canal of schlem

6

An outpocketing of the ________________ (optic vesicle and cup) gives rise to the retina and optic nerve.

Neural tube

7

The ____________, like the rest of the CNS, is myelinated by oligodendrocytes and can NOT regenerate

Optic Nerve

8

The lens ______ becomes the lens vesicle.

placode

9

What is a Coloboma?

Incomplete closure of optic fissure. This is also known as "Cats eye" or "keyhole". This looks like the pupil has melted into the iris so there is a black line of the pupil, instead of just a circle in the middle of the eye.

10

What does the outer layer of the optic cup form?

Retinal pigment epithelium

11

What does the inner layer of the optic cup form?

Neural retina

12

What does the optic stalk form?

Optic nerve

13

What is the optic fissure?

It is a fissure formed by the folding of the stalk upon itself. If this fissure doesn't close properly it will cause coloboma.

14

Where is the blind spot in the eye?

Optic disc

15

The conversion of light into neuronal excitation is called the basic __________________.

Basic retinal circuitry

16

What is the main circuit?

Photoreceptors -> bipolar cells -> ganglion cells

17

What is the order that the path of light goes through?

Optic nerve fiber layer -> Ganglion cell layer -> inner plexiform layer -> Inner nuclear layer (bipolar cells) -> outer plexiform layer -> outer nuclear layer (photoreceptors cell bodies) -> layer of rods and cones -> Retinal pigment epithelium -) choroid

18

What are the contents of the retinal pigment epithelium?

Simple cuboidal epithelium

19

What are the contents of the layer of rods and cones?

Light sensitive potions of the photoreceptors

20

What are the photoreceptors and what do they deal with?

Rods - black and white
Cones - color

21

What are the contents of the outer nuclear layer?

Nuclei of the photoreceptors

22

What are the contents of the outer plexiform layer?

Synapses between photoreceptors and bipolar cells

23

What are the contents of the inner nuclear layer?

Nuclei of bipolar cells (amacrine, horizontal and muller cells too)

24

What are muller cells and where do they extend to and from?

They are the glial cells of the eye and they extend from the basement membrane near vitreous chamber to the retinal pigment epithelium

25

What are the contents of the inner plexiform layer?

Synapses between bipolar and ganglion cells

26

What are the contents of the ganglion cell layer?

Cell bodies of ganglion cels

27

What are the contents of the optic nerve fiber layer?

Ganglion cell axons (axons=fibers) that go to optic disc and nerve

28

The ___________________ is a shallow depression within the pigmented macula lutea.

Fovea centralis

29

The fovea is filled with tightly packed _______ photoreceptors.

Cone

30

T/F - All other retinal cells other than cone photoreceptors are displaced laterally at fovea.

True

31

The site where ganglion cell axons converge and pierce a weakened area of the sclera, the lamina cribrosa, and enters into the optic nerve is called what?

Optic disk

32

The optic disk lacks ___________.

Photoreceptors

33

The optic nerve contains axons of the ______________________ cells.

Retinal ganglion cells

34

The fibers are unmyelinated in the retina, but become myelinated after they enter the _________.

nerve

35

What is it called when there is a swollen optic disc due to increased intracranial pressure (tumor,edema, or hemorrhage) transmitted along the subarachnoid space of the optic nerve?

Papilledema

36

What happens during a detached edema?

Trauma, vitreous shrinkage (with age), etc can result in separation of the retinal pigment epithelium from the neural retina (at the layer of the rods and cones). This detachment represents a reopening of the intraretinal space in the embryonic eye (between the outer and inner layers of the optic cup).

37

Retinal detachment separates the photoreceptors from their blood supply in the ____________.

Choroid

38

The optic nerve fiber layer and ______________ cell layer are supplied by their own blood supply in the optic nerve fiber layer and inner plexiform layer

Ganglion cell layer

39

What portion of the membrane is known for pupillary constriction?

Pretectal area

40

The superior colliculus is known for what?

Generation of the eye movements and orientation

41

What is the hypothalamus known for?

Circadian rhythms

42

A ____________ map is a point to point map of the image falling on each retina.

Retinotopic map

43

The _________________ is defined as the area of the environment seen by each eye when the other eye is closed.

Visual field

The visual fields can be divided into nasal and temporal halves, or superior and inferior halves.

44

The lens projects the visual fields upside down and ____________ onto the retina.

backwards

45

The temporal visual fields projects onto what?

Nasal hemiretina

46

The nasal visual fields projects onto what?

Temporal hemiretina

47

The inferior hemiretina is projected from which visual field?

Superior

48

The superior hemiretina is projected from which visual field?

Inferior

49

All the ganglion cell axons from the retina combine to make the ____________.

Optic N.

50

The optic nerve is myelinated by ________________.

oligodendrocytes

51

The optic chiasm is a crossing of ________ retinal fibers to contralateral optic tract.

nasal retinal fibers

52

The fibers from the ipsilateral temporal retina and contralateral nasal retina make up the __________________.

Optic tract

53

Where does the optic tract terminate into?

Lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus

54

Where do the axons of the cell bodies that reside in the LGN terminate?

Cerebral cortex

55

Axons from the LGN first travel in the ___________________, then split with half of the fibers traveling through the parietal lobe and the other half through the temporal lobe.

Internal capsule

56

Where is the primary visual cortex located?

Occipital lobe

57

What are the other names for the primary visual cortex?

Striate cortex or Brodmann's area 17

58

The primary visual cortex surrounds the ___________ fissure on the medial side of the occipital lobe, including the lingual gyrus and cuneus.

Calcarine

59

Give the pathway for superior vision.

Superior visual field -> inferior retina -> LGN -> temporal lobe visual radiations (meyer's loop) -> lingual gyrus (occipital lobe - inferior to calcarine fissure)

60

Give the pathway for inferior vision.

Inferior visual field -> superior retina -> LGN -> parietal lobe visual radiations -> cuneus (occipital lobe - superior to calcarine fissure)

61

The _________ gyrus corresponds to superior or upper vision.

Lingual gyrus (inferior to calcarine fissure)

62

___________ corresponds to inferior or lower vision.

Cuneus

63

What is anopia or anopsia?

Lack or defect of vision

64

What is hemianopia?

Defect of vision of a half of the eye's visual field

65

What is quadrantanopia?

Defect in vision of a quarter of an eye's visual field

66

What is homonymous?

Defect in same portion of the visual fields of both eyes

67

Where is there a vision loss in nasal hemianopia of the left eye?

Visual loss is in the nasal visual field of the left eye

68

Where is there a vision loss in right homonymous hemianopia?

Visual loss in the right half of the visual fields of both eyes

69

Where is there a vision loss in left superior homonymous quadrantanopia?

Visual loss in the left superior quarter of the visual fields of both eyes.

70

Lesions in the eye, retina, or optic nerve can cause impaired vision in the visual field of __________.

one eye

71

Lesions in the optic chiasm, optic tract, or further along the pathway can cause impaired vision in the visual fields of _____________.

both eyes

72

An optic nerve lesion of the right eye is called _______________,________.

monocular blindness, right eye

73

An _____________________ lesion will lead to loss of afferent limb of pupillary light reflex (direct response).

optic nerve lesion

74

What would be the lesion site that is common with pituitary adenomas?

Optic chiasm in the midline

75

What would be the term associated with a lesion at the optic chiasm at the midline?

Bitemporal hemianopia

76

If there is a lesion at the lateral margin of the optic chiasm what occurs? (damage to right side)

Nasal hemianopia, right eye

77

What can cause a lateral margin of the optic chiasm lesion?

Aneurysms or calcification of the internal carotid artery

78

What can cause left homonymous hemianopia? (damage to right side)

A lesion at the optic tract, LGN, all visual radiations, internal capsule, or all primary visual cortex on one side.

79

What can cause left superior homonymous quadrantanopia? (damage to right side)

Lesions of the visual radiation fibers in the white matter of temporal lobe (Meyer's loop) or lesions of the lingual gyrus of the primary visual cortex.

80

When you have a lesion to the visual radiation fibers in the white matter of the parietal lobe or lesions of cuneusin the primary visual cortex can cause what defect? (damage to right side)

Left inferior homonymous quadranopia

81

Trauma or tumor to the primary visual cortex will result in what? (damage to right side)

Left homonymous hemianopia

82

Trauma to the primary visual cortex or occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery will lead to what? (damage to right side)

Left homonymous hemianopia with macular sparing

83

A blow to the back of the primary visual cortex (bilateral, macular region) willl lead to what?

Bilateral central scotoma