Flashcards in Lecture 1: Immunity and Vaccines Deck (17):
What is the job of the immune system?
Defend host against harmful microbes
What are some consequences of a defective immune system?
What is the scientific method?
What observation was made during the black plague that relates to modern immunology?
Those that contracted and recovered from the disease would not get it a second time
What does "immunis" mean (Latin root for immune)?
Immunis = Exempt
What is the alternate name for small pox?
What advancement did the Chinese/Turks make during the 15th Century in regards to immunology?
They hypothesized, tested, and concluded that if naive individuals are given mild smallpox (variola minor) and recover, then they will be protected against deadly small pox (variola major)
This experimentation is called Variolation
What hypothesis did Edward Jenner make about smallpox in the 1790's?
If naive individuals are given mild smallpox (cowpox) and recover, then they will be protected against deadly small pox (variola major)
How did Edward Jenner test his hypothesis about cowpox/smallpox?
-Jenner introduced pus from a cowpox lesion from a milkmaid into a young boy.
-Then he exposed the boy to smallpox
-The boy did not contract the disease
-Conclusion: Jenners cowpox (vaccinia) inoculation proved to be an effective means for smallpox prevention
Where did the word "vaccine" originate from?
Edward Jenner's experiment with cowpox and smallpox prevention
vacca = cow
What is Inoculation?
Being given a mild form of a disease to generate immunity
What does "Naive" mean in regards to immunology?
Not exposed = no immunity
How was smallpox eradicated in the western world? How was it eradicated in the rest of the world?
Vaccine was used in western Europe and U.S.
-Eradicated in U.S. by 1950's
Eradicated in developing world through Ring Vaccination
-Vaccinate everyone in ring surround severely affected area
-Allows disease to burn itself out and doesn't spread outwards
What is Herd Immunity?
Certain % of population needed to contain transmission and spread of disease.
-Protects non-immune by decreasing the likelihood of spread by lowering the overall number of viable candidates for the disease
Who were the creators of the measles vaccine and when was it licensed? When was it put into a combo vaccine? When was measles eradicated from U.S.?
1963 - Enders and Katz measles vaccine licensed
1970's - MMR Vaccine used
2000 - Measles eradicated from U.S.
What are the weaknesses present in the Wakefield study?
-Small Sample Size
-Parents involved in data collection = bias
-All kids sent to same gastroenterology unit