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Why are lots of definitions of waste a bad thing?

Overlap causes problems
Different wastes need different disposal routes
Different waste streams react differently in the environment


Who are the International Solid Waste Association?

To promote and develop sustainable and Professional Waste Management Worldwide.
- promotes resource efficiency through sustainable production and consumption
- support to developing and emerging economies
- advancement of waste management through education and training
- promoting appropriate and best available technologies and practises
- professionalism through its programme on professional qualifications

ISWA's vision is an Earth where no waste exists


What are the objectives and implementation of the ISWA?

ISWA works to protect human health and the environment as well as to ensure sustainable resource management and provided the following scientific, economic and social instrument:

- International network, to share knowledge and experience in sustainable waste management and climate change mitigation
- Expert working groups to advance knowledge and expertise
- All kinds of professional events for the dissemination of information
- Education and training courses tailored to the trainees needs including a qualification and certification programme
- Professional publications including high quality research journals and magazines, up to date studies and developments from all over the world
- Cooperation with all stakeholders in waste management, particularly the National Members of ISWA as well as with International Organisations and Institutions
- Projects in developing economies to establish sustainable waste management practices
- Raising the level of international awareness of the global waste emergency and finding funding instruments to combat this especially in developing economies
- Ensuring international fora recognise the importance of good waste management for health, economic, social and overall environmental progress towards a more sustainable society


Bioreactor landfill
Sanitary landfill

Bioreactor landfill
- A bioreactor landfill is an MSW landfill that utilizes enhanced microbial processes under anaerobic (and possibly even aerobic) conditions to accelerate the degradation of refuse.

Sanitary landfill
- Sanitary landfills are sites where waste is isolated from the environment until it is safe. It is considered when it has completely degraded biologically, chemically and physically.


what is the UN stastical division definition of waste?

Wastes are materials that are not prime products for which the generator has no further use for purposes of production, transformation or consumption and he/she wants to dispose. Wastes may be generated during the extraction of raw materials, the processing of raw materials into intermediate and final products, the consumption of final products and other human activities. Residuals recycled or reused at the place of generation are excluded


What is the Basel convention?

The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal, usually known as the Basel Convention, is an international treaty that was designed to reduce the movements of hazardous waste between nations, and specifically to prevent transfer of hazardous waste from developed to less developed countries (LDCs). It does not, however, address the movement of radioactive waste. The Convention is also intended to minimize the amount and toxicity of wastes generated, to ensure their environmentally sound management as closely as possible to the source of generation, and to assist LDCs in environmentally sound management of the hazardous and other wastes they generate.
The Convention was opened for signature on 22 March 1989, and entered into force on 5 May 1992.


What is the Basel convention's definition of waste?

Substances or objects which are disposed of or are intended to be disposed or are required to be disposed of by the provisions of the aw.

Disposal means 'any operation which may lead to resource recovery, recycling, reclamation, direct-re-use or alternative uses


Definition of waste: 75/442 Waste Framework Directive- article 1

- Waste means any substance or object which the holder disposes of ir is required to dispose of pursuant to the provisions of national law in force.
- the emphasise is on the intention of the original owner to discard
- Disposal means: 'the collection, sorting, transport and treatment of wastes as well as its storage and tipping above or underground- the transformation operations necessary for its re-use, recovery or recycling.


Definition of waste: 75/442 WFD- article 4

- Member states: take the necessary measures to ensure that waste is disposed of without endangering human health and without harming the environment, and in particular without risk to:
- water, air, soil and plants and animals
- causing a nuisance through noise or odours
- Adversely affecting the countryside/places of special interest


23500 UK landfills

Down to 580
- predicted to get < 300


What is the WFD?

amended by 2008/98/EC

Qualitative waste prevention
-Use less toxic waste resources
- Produce less toxic wastes

Quantitative waste prevention
- Use less resources
- More efficient production
- Produce less waste

- 1975 focus on disposal
- 1991 includes recovery + definition of waste
- 2006/7 environment + health, 5-stage hierarchy, recovery
- Life Cycle Thinking, wastes as resources, standards (Minimum ?)
- Hierarchy a priority not guidance, waste prevention plans (not targets), targets for collection and recycling, efficiency equation for recovery

The aim of the WFD was to lay the basis to turn the EU into a recycling society.


What are the different approaches to defining and categorising wastes?

Origins: what human activities generate wastes?
- e.g. household
- e.g. agriculture/ nuclear/ medical etc

Composition: what is the waste made of?
- solid, liquid, gas
- Bio or non-degradable
- E-waste
- Packaging, plastics, Metals
- Wood, Dirt, Ashes, Garden

Toxicity: How dangerous is it for human health and biosphere?
- hazardous vs non-hazardous
- Infectious
- Radioactive
- flammable, explosive, corrosive
- poisonous

Management; how is it handled? who is in charge?
- Collected, sorted (kerbside)
- Reused; recycles
- Composted; digested
- incinerated
- disposed


What is the EA/ WRAP waste protocols project?

Quality protocol: identifying at point at which waste, having been fully recovered, may be recovered, may be regarded as a non-waste product that can be reused by business/ industry, or supplied into other markets for VM controls

and/ or

- To produce a statement that confirms to business community what VM controls must comply with:
e.g. Compost quality protocol


What are by-products?

On Imperative, communication on waste and by-products, in eu waste law, materials are simply waste or not waste

- production residues as deliberate may/may not be a waste
> further use a certainty and not a mere possibility
> Without any further processing prior to use
> As part of a continuing production process
> = a cumulative test, and use must be lawful


What are some examples of by-products?

> blast furnace slag but not desulphurisation slag (accepted in the UK in 2007 and no QP)
> animal feed from food and drink industry (if guareenteed market- shouldn't matter what shape the carrot is.
> Flue gas and desulphirsation from combustion
> Excess materials from primary production: rubber compound, cork shavings, plastic scrap and similar materials
> sawdust, wood chips and offcuts of untreated wood from sawmills and manufacture of furniture, pallets, packaging (e,g, oil spills).


Modern society involves consumption.

All previous global growth periods were able to access cheap primary resources.

1st: iron, water power, mechanisation, textiles, commerce (1785-1845)

2nd: Engines; steam power, railroad, steel, cotton (1845-1900)

3rd: electricty, chemicals, internal combustion engine (1900-1950)

4th: petrochemicals, electronics, aviation, space (1950-1990)

5th: Digital networks, biotechnology, software information technology (1990-2000)

6th: sustainability, radical resource productivity, whole system design, green chemistry, industrial ecology, renewable energy, green nano technology (2000- ?)


What are current consumption rates?

1900 - 1 earth
2002- 1.5
2050- 2
2100- 4


What is global waste generation?

Estimate: total global arising of MSW- 2 billion tonnes year
- urban wastes, including MSW, commerical and industrial waste, and construction and demolition waste estimated -7 to 10 billion tonnes year


what was early waste management?

father of waste mangement in uk- corbyn morris

londons waste strategy (1751)
>one uniform public management- integrated london-wide strategy
>Conveyance to proper distance in the country
- use of the thames to landfill downstream
> use of the waste as land improver

- in southampton 1753, Messers, Warwick and Minshaw undertook to collect waste and dung for councils, paying 10 guineas plus 2 capons per year
- september 1769- town scavengers appointed to keep the streets clean and send propoer servants and carrisges for doing 2 days in every week on friday and saturday

- paid mayor to collect (not the public) so he could make use of it


describe the 19thC dust yards

- informal recycling system
-organised waste management system
-driven by resource value NOT legislation
-industrial revolution meant that household coal ash much in demand for brick making and soil conditioner
-Dust market peaked in 1820s
- largely forgotten C19th system effectively recycled everything collected
- World first large scale zero waste system
- No landfill


describe the victorian era

- increasing focus on public health
- edwin chadwick: general report on the sanitary condition of the labouring population of great britain (1842)
- Important legislation
> 1846-1860- Nuisance removal and disease prevention acts
> 1848 Public health act
> 1853-1856 Smoke abatement acts
> 1855 London metropolitan Board of Works
> 1872 Public Health act
> 1875 Public health act
> 1894 Local government act
> 1899 London government act
(+ cleansing superintendents)


what was the Dawes report

- JC Dawes charged with deciding how london can best manage and minimise its waste

The report recommends
- Centralised management of disposal under appropriate body under cost and disposal grounds
- Central delivery of collection and street cleaning
- A cleaner collection service including metal dustbins
- Major street cleansing in poorest district
- An end to crude dumping- move to controlled tipping
> views largely rejected
> funny: 2007- environmental minister rejects almost same plan!


What are the role of local authorities?

- Responsible for planning, nuisance, air quality, public health
- Municial waste collection and disposal
- commercial and industrial waste- market forces.
- LA responsible for strategy to manage waste- planning, infrastructure, services, etc.
- Recycling plans for household and commercial wastes
- Local air pollution prevention and control (smaller incinerators) under PPC act 1999


Describe waste disposal authrities

- Existing WDA directed to set up Local Authority Waste Disposal Companies (LAWDCs) or else arrange for private waste management companies to take on disposal
- WDA drew up contracts for disposal and selected lowest acceptable tender; now 'Best value@ prevails
_ WDA duties:
> arranging for disposal of all controlled waste collected in their area by WCA
> providing places at which h/h can deposit waste for disposal
> arranging for disposal of domestic waste
> complex contract law, SOS scrutiny ( EPA 1990- to raise operation standards).


What are LAWDCs

- restriction apply to LAWDC if it is controlled by a WDA
- LAWDC unable to engage in activities other than collection, disposal, treatment or keeping of waste
- LAWDC is operated under requirements of ARMS LENGTH COMPANY under local Government and Housing Act, 1989


What are recycling credit

Are a means to pass on to recyclers savings in disposal and collection costs which result from recycling household waste
(pass on savings to public- reduce tax they pa)

> collection credits
- WCAs have power (but not obliged by law) to pay recycling credits to community groups, business or other organisations who collect household waste or recycling
>disposal credits
- WDAs have power (but not obliged by law) to pay recycling credits to 3rd parties that send household waste for recycling
- WDAs obliged by law to pay recycling credits WCAs


What are the UK environmnetal agencies?

- Evolved from the alkali inspectorate in 1860s
- set up under the EA 1995, merging the:
> National Rivers authority (NRA)
> Her majesty's inspectorate of pollution (HMIP)
> Local Waste Regulation Authorities (WRAs)
- EA
- Natural resources Wales
- Scottish EPA
- Northern Ireland Environment Agency


look at graphs in leaflet

- there has been a significant reduction in the amount of landfill and dumpsites


Options for waste management

Incineration: not popular but can produce energy


Describe recycling

- is not collection, sorting, cleaning, cutting, crushing, separating, baling
- it means reprocessed in a production process for the original purposed, or other purpose, but excluding energy recovery
- importance of fit-for-purpose product specifications + Quality protocols


Describe MSW in the EU

Not consistent
- Austrai 60%
- Norway switch from incineration to recycling overnight


What is the Hierarchy and WH




Describe reuse

- means any operation which by products or components that are not waste are used again for the same purpose for which they were concieved

(preapring for reuse)- checking, cleaning, or repairing recovery options, by which products or components of products that have become waste are prepared so that they can be resued without any other pre-processing

Roel fo third sector: jobs, skills, social equity


describe waste prevention

- focuses on actions taken before something becomes waste that reduce the:
- quantity and extension of product life through design, repair or reuse
- adverse impacts of waste on the enviro and human health
- content of harmful substances in material and products


what are the options for hierarchy

- charity and reuse shops
- Shwop shops
- Bring and buy sales
- Car boot sales
- online redistribution of resources


What are emerging ideas?

- resource efficiency: using earths limited resources in sustainable manner while minimising negative impacts on environment
- CE: moving from linear to one where our products, and the materials they contain are valued differently


what is urban mining?

The process of reclaiming compounds and elements from products, buildings and waste
- disused cell phones, LCD television
- computers (rare earth)

Rare earth (neodymium) are in high demand, especially for hybrid vehicles
- for example, each toyota Prius required approx 2.2 pounds neodymium


what are the UK waste strategies

1. Uk govern white paper (1990)- the common inheritance- Britain environmental strategy
2. Sust develop: the UK strategy (1994)
3. Uk Government White paper (1995) making waste work
4. Waste strategy 2000 (england and wales)
5. Waste management strategy 2000-2006 (n ireland)
6. Wise about waste: the national strategy for wales (2002)
7. National waste plan (2003) scotland
8. Towards resource management: the northern ireland waste management strategy 2006-2020
9. waste strategy for england 2007
10. towards zero waste: one wales, one planet (2010)
11. Scotlands zero waste plan (2010)
12. Waste management plan for england 2013
13. delivering resource efficiency (2013) (n ireland)