Lecture 1 - Introduction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 1 - Introduction Deck (35):
1

Why is Water important?

- No species can live without water
- Plays a key role in shaping the earth’s surface, moderating climate, removing and diluting wastes.
- Takes huge amount to provide food, shelter and other needs.
- It is 71% of our planet

2

What are water's unique properties?

- Hydrogen Bonding
- Liquid over wide temperature range
- Changes temperature slowly
-High heat of evaporation
- Great dissolving power
- Filters out ultraviolet radiation
- Adhesion and cohesion
- Expands when it freezes
-Water is also one of few substances found commonly as a solid, liquid and gas.

3

_____ of water is in oceans

97.4%

4

precipitation that does not infiltrate the ground or return to the atmosphere.

Surface runoff

5

amount of water that can be counted on each year as a stable source.

Reliable runoff

6

the region of land from which surface water drains into a river, lake, wetland or other body of water

Watershed

7

It is One of the most important source of water.

Groundwater

8

_____ found within 1km of the surface contains 100 times more water than all the rivers, streams and lakes

Groundwater

9

Humans use about _____ of reliable runoff

54%

10

Uses of Water Resources

- Agriculture
- Industry
- Domestic

11

About ___________ do not have access to regular, clean water supplies.

1 in 6 people (1 billion people)

12

4 Reasons why there's too little of water

- Dry climate
- Drought
- Desiccation
- Water Stress

13

people living or growing crops in areas where little precipitation naturally falls

Dry climate

14

prolonged periods of below average precipitation.

Drought

15

drying of exposed soil because of activities such as deforestation and overgrazing.

Desiccation

16

low per capita availability of water due to increasing population demands.

Water Stress

17

6 water resources sustainability - facets

1.Availability of supply
2.Infra for provision and protection
3.Infra for quality
4.Water supply and excess management
5.Local, regional, national and international basis
6.Integrated water resources management

18

Draw the Urban Water Cycle

-see ppt-

19

7 water management to water supply

1.Sources
2.Transmission
3.Water treatment
4.Distribution system
5.Wastewater collection
6.Wastewater treatment
7.Reuse

20

3 water management to Water excess

1.Collection/drainage system
2.Storage/treatment
3.Flood control components

21

8 Major impacts of increased runoff (Urban storm water runoff

1.Increased stream flows
2.Decline in runoff water quality
3.Higher runoff with higher pollutant
4.Diminished GW recharge
5.Increased flooding
6.Sanitary sewer overflows
7.Damage to stream and aquatic life
8.Destroying food sources/habitats of aquatic life

22

6 Factors affecting urban flood management

1. Development with no planning
2. High population concentration
3. Lack of stormwater and sewage facilities
4. Polluted air and water
5. Difficulty of water supply against population
6. Poor public transportation

23

How to increase water supply

1) Build dams and reservoirs
2) Transfer water to places it is needed
3) Withdraw groundwater
4) Desalinization
5) Reduce water waste
6) Import food from regions where irrigation is not needed.

24

Large _____ can produce cheap electricity, reduce downstream flooding and provide a year round source of water, but they completely alter the river ecosystem.

dams

25

Benefits of tapping groundwater

- Year-round use
- Little water loss
- Often cheaper

26

Tapping of groundwater costs

- Has tradeoffs
- Water tables around the world are falling

27

Problems with using groundwater

Water table lowering
Depletion
Subsidence
Saltwater intrusion
Chemical contamination
Reduced stream flows

28

Problems using groundwater

Salt water intrusion
Ground will subside

29

removing salt from seawater by evaporation of water leaving salt behind.

Distillation Desalination

30

pumping saltwater under high pressure through a membrane to take out salt.

Reverse osmosis desalination

31

releasing tiny particles into air to produce rain clouds

Cloud seeding

32

moving ice around world.

Towing icebergs

33

How to use water more efficiently

- Reduce losses due to leakage
- Reform water laws
- Improve irrigation efficiency
- Water efficient landscaping (xeriscaping)
- Water efficient appliances:
- Reusing of water

34

Human Activities that affect Water Quality

Sedimentation
• Eutrophication
• Thermal Pollution
• Acidification
• Microbial contamination
• Salinization
• Trace metals and mercury
• Pesticides

35

Sources of water pollution

• Storm water runoff
• Domestic discharges
• Industrial discharges
• Accidental spills