Lecture 1: Introduction to pain Flashcards
What is a pain etiology?
The presumed cause of pain
What is nociceptive pain?
- Caused by potentially harmful stimuli being detected by nociceptors around the body.
- No nervous system lesion or inflammation
What is inflammatory pain?
- Causes active inflammation
- It is a spontaneous and stimuli-dependent pain
- It causes sensory amplification (the longer the pain is there the more painful it is)
- It is evoked by low and high intensity stimuli
What is dysfunctional pain?
- Chronic pain that appears also when there is no stimuli
- Not known to be causing structural nervous system lesion or active peripheral inflammation
- Spontaneous and stimulus-dependent pain
- Sensory amplification
- Evoked by low and high intensity
- Present with lack of stimuli
What is neuropathic pain?
- Often the result of a nervous system lesion or disease
- Marked neuroimmune response
- Spontaneous and stimulus dependent pain (sensory amplification, evoked by low and high intensity stimuli)
What are the different possible pain locations?
- phantom limb
what is superficial pain?
Pain to the skin
What is deep pain?
pain to muscles, joints, bones
What is visceral pain?
It’s referred pain, you say it feels like it hurts somewhere (for example you feel like your tummy hurts but it’s actually your colon the stimuli)
Where is neuropathic pain located?
Neuropathic pain is referred pain, but it is hard to know where the exact location of the stimuli is.
Where is phantom limb pain located?
This is also a problem, the limb is not actually there so it is hard to know where the pain is located.
What are the different symptoms of pain disorders?
- spontaneous pain
- evoked pain
- paradoxical thermal sensations
What are the two types of spontaneous pain?
- continuous: the pain is always there
- paroxysmal: sometimes it’s there, sometimes it’s not.
What are the 4 different possible evoked pain? (Also called pain hypersensitivity)
- The two types of hypersensitivity are allodynia and hyperalgesia, which can both be caused by thermal, mechanical, cold or vibration stimuli.
- evoked pain can be static or dynamic (stimuli stays in one place or moves)
- it can also be activity-evoked (ex by walking)
What are paresthesia and dysesthesia?
They are both “funny feelings” but paresthesia is not necessarily unpleasant whereas dysesthesia is an unpleasant feeling.
What is the problem with numbness?
Numbness is a symptom that you are in pain, and it can be a big problem because it’s unpleasant.
What are paradoxical thermal sensations?
When a cold thing feels hot or the opposite
What are aftersensations?
The sensations that stay after pain (for example after you get out of surgery)