Flashcards in Lecture 1: Primers To Immunology Deck (57):
____________ refers to the ability to respond to foreign substances regardless of the physiologic or pathologic consequence of such a reaction. It is mediated by the molecules, cells, and tissues collectively called the immune system.
__________ immunity is the response of antigen-specific lymphocytes to antigens and includes memory (protective)
_________ immunity refers to protection against antigens that relies on mechanisms that exist before exposure
_________ are cell suface molecules expressed on various types and are used to define cell type, receptors, etc.
These are recognized by _____________ antibodies
CD (Cluster of Differentiation)
_________ is also known as CR2 or C3dR
_________ is also known as IL-2Ra
CD152 is also known as _______
CD95 is also known as ________
___________ are bioactive protein molecules that mediate immune responses via autocrine, paracrine, and exocrine actions. They are pleiotropic and redundant.
What are 5 different types of cytokines?
IFN-alpha, beta, and gamma
IV immunoglobulins are an example of what type of immunity? (Active/passive and artificial/natural)
Maternal antibodies are an example of what type of immunity? (Active/passive and artificial/natural)
Vaccines are an example of what type of immunity? (Active/passive and artificial/natural)
Infection or exposure to a pathogen are examples of what type of immunity? (Active/passive and artificial/natural)
Does active immunity generate specificity and memory?
Does passive immunity generate specificity and memory?
Specificity = yes
Memory = no
Innate immunity provides protection against infections that relies on mechanisms that exist ________ infection, are capable of __________ responses to microbes, and react in essentially the same way to ________ infections
Innate immunity responds rapidly to the presence of microorganisms or foreign antigens.
Describe the activity of your innate immune system in the absence of infection, as well as where this system is found
Normally inactive in the absence of infection; it is found in ANY vascularized tissue
Describe the specificity and diversity of the innate immune system
Not antigen-specific, with limited diversity
[innate immune system recognizes structures shared by many microbes]
Does the innate immune system generate memory?
No, it responds the same way to every challenge
The innate immune system __________ the adaptive immune system
During hematopoiesis, CFU-GM stimulation of a myeloid stem cell followed by stimulation by GM-CSF and M-CSF would eventually result in what cell type?
During hematopoiesis, CFU-GM stimulation of a myeloid stem cell followed by stimulation by GM-CSF and G-CSF would eventually result in what cell type?
During hematopoiesis, GM-CSF and IL-3 stimulation of a myeloid stem cell followed by stimulation by GM-CSF and IL-5 would eventually result in what cell type?
During hematopoiesis, IL-3 stimulation of a myeloid stem cell followed by stimulation by IL-3 and IL-4 would eventually result in what cell type?
Eosinophils differentiate in response to _______.
They make up _____% of WBCs and persist in circulation for ________ hours. They can survive in tissue for an additional 8-12 days in the absence of stimulation.
They are responsible for responding to _________ ___________.
Like their "sister" granulocytes, the mast cells, they play a major role in _______ diseases.
Basophils are __________ circulatory cells that stain with methylene blue basic dye.
They have a __________ nucleus and are non-phagocytic.
They release pharmacologically active substances contained within granules and participate in __________ diseases
True or false: mast cells are granulated
What are the 2 types of mast cells?
Tissue and mucosal
Mast cells play a key role in the inflammatory process and atopic disease. What stimulates mast cell degranulation?
Cross-linking of IgE, or activated C proteins
Mast cells express what high-affinity receptor?
What innate cell type recognizes infected, stressed, or malignant cells and kills them by releasing perforins and granzymes, leading to apoptosis?
Natural killer cells
Natural killer cells are activated by _______, secreted by macrophages, ______ or type ____ IFNs.
Activated NK cells secrete ______, which activates macrophages.
IL-12; IL-15, I
What CD markers are found on NK cells?
What does ADCC stand for?
Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity
What is the principle mediator of ADCC?
Activating receptor IgG Fc
What are the 3 innate phagocytic cell types?
__________ are circulating phagocytes that provide short-lived, rapid responses but not prolonged defense
What phagocytic cell has 2 types, one in tissue and one in circulation, and participates in prolonged defense?
Monocytes (circulating), macrophages (tissue)
What are the 2 types of macrophages?
M1 = classical
M2 = alternative
_____________ macrophages are induced by innate immunity and play a role in inflammation
_____________ macrophages are induced by IL-4 and IL-13 and play a role in tissue repair and control of inflammation
What phagocytic cells are found in all tissues, have antigen-presenting properties, and have the 2 major functions of initiating inflammation and initiating adaptive immune responses?
_________ immunity develops as a response to infection and adapts to the infection. The defining feature is an exquisite specificity for distinct molecules and an ability to "remember" and respond more vigorously to repeated exposures to the same microbe
The main components of adaptive immunity are ___________, and their secreted products, like _______
_________ is the characteristic of adaptive immunity that ensures that distinct antigens elicit specific responses
_________ is the characteristic of adaptive immunity that enables the immune system to respond to a large variety of antigens
_________ is the characteristic of adaptive immunity that leads to enhanced responses to repeated exposures to the same antigens
_________ is the characteristic of adaptive immunity that increases the number of antigen-specific lymphocytes from a small number of naive lymphocytes
_________ is the characteristic of adaptive immunity that generates responses that are optimal for defense against different types of microbes
_________ and _________are the characteristics of adaptive immunity that allows the immune system to respond to newly encountered antigens
What effector cell of adaptive immunity is responsible for neutralization of microbes, phagocytosis, and complement activation?
What effector cell of adaptive immunity is responsible for activation of macrophages, inflammation, and activation of B and T lymphocytes?
Helper T lymphocytes
What effector cell of adaptive immunity is responsible for killing of infected cells?
What effector cell of adaptive immunity is responsible for suppression of immune responses?
Regulatory T lymphocytes
Humoral immunity consists of __________ that neutralize and eradicate exogenous antigens