Lecture 1: Primers To Immunology Flashcards Preview

HDM Midterm > Lecture 1: Primers To Immunology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 1: Primers To Immunology Deck (57):
1

____________ refers to the ability to respond to foreign substances regardless of the physiologic or pathologic consequence of such a reaction. It is mediated by the molecules, cells, and tissues collectively called the immune system.

Immunity

2

__________ immunity is the response of antigen-specific lymphocytes to antigens and includes memory (protective)

Adaptive

3

_________ immunity refers to protection against antigens that relies on mechanisms that exist before exposure

Innate

4

_________ are cell suface molecules expressed on various types and are used to define cell type, receptors, etc.

These are recognized by _____________ antibodies

CD (Cluster of Differentiation)

Monoclonal

5

_________ is also known as CR2 or C3dR

CD21

6

_________ is also known as IL-2Ra

CD25

7

CD152 is also known as _______

CTLA-4

8

CD95 is also known as ________

Fas

9

___________ are bioactive protein molecules that mediate immune responses via autocrine, paracrine, and exocrine actions. They are pleiotropic and redundant.

Cytokines

10

What are 5 different types of cytokines?

Interleukins (IL)
TNF
IFN-alpha, beta, and gamma
TGF-beta
CSF

11

IV immunoglobulins are an example of what type of immunity? (Active/passive and artificial/natural)

Passive
Artificial

12

Maternal antibodies are an example of what type of immunity? (Active/passive and artificial/natural)

Passive
Natural

13

Vaccines are an example of what type of immunity? (Active/passive and artificial/natural)

Active
Artificial

14

Infection or exposure to a pathogen are examples of what type of immunity? (Active/passive and artificial/natural)

Active
Natural

15

Does active immunity generate specificity and memory?

Yes, both

16

Does passive immunity generate specificity and memory?

Specificity = yes
Memory = no

17

Innate immunity provides protection against infections that relies on mechanisms that exist ________ infection, are capable of __________ responses to microbes, and react in essentially the same way to ________ infections

Before
Rapid
Repeat

18

Innate immunity responds rapidly to the presence of microorganisms or foreign antigens.

Describe the activity of your innate immune system in the absence of infection, as well as where this system is found

Normally inactive in the absence of infection; it is found in ANY vascularized tissue

19

Describe the specificity and diversity of the innate immune system

Not antigen-specific, with limited diversity

[innate immune system recognizes structures shared by many microbes]

20

Does the innate immune system generate memory?

No, it responds the same way to every challenge

21

The innate immune system __________ the adaptive immune system

Stimulates

22

During hematopoiesis, CFU-GM stimulation of a myeloid stem cell followed by stimulation by GM-CSF and M-CSF would eventually result in what cell type?

Monocytes

23

During hematopoiesis, CFU-GM stimulation of a myeloid stem cell followed by stimulation by GM-CSF and G-CSF would eventually result in what cell type?

Neutrophils

24

During hematopoiesis, GM-CSF and IL-3 stimulation of a myeloid stem cell followed by stimulation by GM-CSF and IL-5 would eventually result in what cell type?

Eosinophils

25

During hematopoiesis, IL-3 stimulation of a myeloid stem cell followed by stimulation by IL-3 and IL-4 would eventually result in what cell type?

Basophils

26

Eosinophils differentiate in response to _______.

They make up _____% of WBCs and persist in circulation for ________ hours. They can survive in tissue for an additional 8-12 days in the absence of stimulation.

They are responsible for responding to _________ ___________.

Like their "sister" granulocytes, the mast cells, they play a major role in _______ diseases.

IL-5
1-6%
8-12
Multicellular parasites
Atopic

27

Basophils are __________ circulatory cells that stain with methylene blue basic dye.

They have a __________ nucleus and are non-phagocytic.

They release pharmacologically active substances contained within granules and participate in __________ diseases

Granulated
Bi-lobed
Atopic

28

True or false: mast cells are granulated

True

29

What are the 2 types of mast cells?

Tissue and mucosal

30

Mast cells play a key role in the inflammatory process and atopic disease. What stimulates mast cell degranulation?

Direct injury
Chemicals
Alcohols
Certain Abx
Cross-linking of IgE, or activated C proteins

31

Mast cells express what high-affinity receptor?

FceR' (CD23)

32

What innate cell type recognizes infected, stressed, or malignant cells and kills them by releasing perforins and granzymes, leading to apoptosis?

Natural killer cells

33

Natural killer cells are activated by _______, secreted by macrophages, ______ or type ____ IFNs.

Activated NK cells secrete ______, which activates macrophages.

IL-12; IL-15, I

IFN-y

34

What CD markers are found on NK cells?

CD16
CD56

35

What does ADCC stand for?

Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity

36

What is the principle mediator of ADCC?

Activating receptor IgG Fc

37

What are the 3 innate phagocytic cell types?

Neutrophils
Monocytes (macrophages)
Dendritic cells

38

__________ are circulating phagocytes that provide short-lived, rapid responses but not prolonged defense

Neutrophils

39

What phagocytic cell has 2 types, one in tissue and one in circulation, and participates in prolonged defense?

Monocytes (circulating), macrophages (tissue)

40

What are the 2 types of macrophages?

M1 = classical
M2 = alternative

41

_____________ macrophages are induced by innate immunity and play a role in inflammation

M1 (classical)

42

_____________ macrophages are induced by IL-4 and IL-13 and play a role in tissue repair and control of inflammation

M2 (alternative)

43

What phagocytic cells are found in all tissues, have antigen-presenting properties, and have the 2 major functions of initiating inflammation and initiating adaptive immune responses?

Dendritic cells

44

_________ immunity develops as a response to infection and adapts to the infection. The defining feature is an exquisite specificity for distinct molecules and an ability to "remember" and respond more vigorously to repeated exposures to the same microbe

Adaptive

45

The main components of adaptive immunity are ___________, and their secreted products, like _______

Lymphocytes; antibodies

46

_________ is the characteristic of adaptive immunity that ensures that distinct antigens elicit specific responses

Specificity

47

_________ is the characteristic of adaptive immunity that enables the immune system to respond to a large variety of antigens

Diversity

48

_________ is the characteristic of adaptive immunity that leads to enhanced responses to repeated exposures to the same antigens

Memory

49

_________ is the characteristic of adaptive immunity that increases the number of antigen-specific lymphocytes from a small number of naive lymphocytes

Clonal expansion

50

_________ is the characteristic of adaptive immunity that generates responses that are optimal for defense against different types of microbes

Specialization

51

_________ and _________are the characteristics of adaptive immunity that allows the immune system to respond to newly encountered antigens

Contraction; homeostasis

52

What effector cell of adaptive immunity is responsible for neutralization of microbes, phagocytosis, and complement activation?

B lymphocyte

53

What effector cell of adaptive immunity is responsible for activation of macrophages, inflammation, and activation of B and T lymphocytes?

Helper T lymphocytes

54

What effector cell of adaptive immunity is responsible for killing of infected cells?

CTLs

55

What effector cell of adaptive immunity is responsible for suppression of immune responses?

Regulatory T lymphocytes

56

Humoral immunity consists of __________ that neutralize and eradicate exogenous antigens

Antibodies

57

Cell-mediate immunity participates in the eradication of _________ antigens

Endogenous