What is another way of saying gross anatomy?
What is morbid anatomy? What is another name for it?
Anatomy of diseased tissues = pathological anatomy
What are the 2 branches of microscopic anatomy?
What is topography anatomy?
That devoted to the determination of the relative positions of various body parts
What is special anatomy?
That devoted to the study of particular organs or parts
What are the 2 contexts necessary to learn anatomy?
- Context in which the terminology can be remembered
2. Context of the structure
What does the prefix “brachio-“ mean?
What does “common” mean when referring to a body part?
It will bifurcate and branch out
What does “carotid” mean? What does it refer to in anatomy?
Going to the head
What are surface features?
Surface characteristics that are examinable (visible or palpatable) on a patient’s skin
What is oscultation? How do surface features help determine how to do this correctly?
Listening with stethoscope
Sternum angle level is at the level of the second rib and helps locate where to listen at different intercostal spaces
Is anatomy divided by physio systems?
How is the study of anatomy divided?
By regions: upper limbs, thorax, etc.
What are the 6 specifications of the anatomical position?
- Standing erect
- Head, eye, and toes directed forward
- Upper limbs by the side
- Palms facing forward, fingers together
- Lower limbs together with toes pointing forward
- Penis is erect
What is the anatomical position?
Description of any region or part of the body in a specific stance
What are the 3 anatomical planes? Name if done symmetrically for each. Also describe each.
- Sagittal/median plane: cuts body in right and left side
- Transverse/horizontal: cuts body in superior and inferior parts
- Coronal/frontal: cuts body in anterior and posterior parts
Which anatomical plane is rarely used?
What does anterior mean?
Closer to the front
What does posterior mean?
Closer to the back
What does superior mean?
Closer to the head
What does inferior mean?
Closer to the feet
What does medial mean?
Closer to the midline
What does lateral mean?
Further from the midline
What are the 6 terms of relationship in anatomy?
What are the 6 terms of comparison in anatomy?
What are the 12 terms of movement in anatomy?
- Plantar flexion
What do the anatomical terms of movement refer to?
The angle of a joint and how it is going to change with movement
What is flexion?
Bending or making a decreasing angle
What is extension?
Straightening of a bent part or making an increasing angle
How to flex the head?
Bend it forward
How to flex the knee?
Bend foot toward butt
How to flex the leg?
Which part of the body has its own medial plane? What is it?
The hand: the middle finger
What is opposition?
When the thumb is brought to another digit
What is reposition?
From the position of opposition back to its anatomical position
What is pronation?
Outward roll of the limbs
What is supination?
Inward roll of the limbs
How to flex shoulder?
Lift your arm up
What is horizontal abduction?
Moving your arm on a horizontal/parallel plane to the floor away from the midline
How to flex your trunk?
What are Langer lines? What is their purpose?
Topological lines, which are drawn on a map of the human body, pointing to the natural direction/orientation of collagen fibers in superficial fascia (underneath the skin)
Used by surgeons as cutting along the lines (parallels) helps with scarring
What is another way of saying suponation/pronation?
Inversion and eversion
What is thumb abduction?
Thumb moves to a perpendicular position to the plane of the hand
What is thumb extension?
Thumb moves away from hand on the same plane
What is thumb flexion?
Thumb touches the furthest part of the palm of the hand
How can a stomach ulcer affect neighboring structures?
Since most stomach ulcers are on the posterior side, they can ulcerate through the stomach and affect the splenic artery to the point of rupturing it
What is the xiphoid process?
Most inferior bone of the sternum
What is another name for the jugular notch?
What is the superficial fascia?
Thin layer of loose fatty connective tissue underlying the dermis and binding it to the parts beneath
Describe the differences between the right and left vagus nerves.
- Left: vagus nerve branches into a recurrent laryngeal nerve at the superior edge of the thoracic cavity, coming off much more inferior to the aortic arch
- Right: vagus nerve branches into a recurrent laryngeal nerve superior to the aortic arch
Where is the esophageal sphincter usually located? What is a common disease associated with a different positioning of it?
Located inferior to the diaphragm in normal conditions.
However, when the stomach moves up through the diaphragm (through diaphragm’s hiatal opening), we get the esophageal sphincter located now superior to the diaphragm = Hiatal Hernia and can give rise to serious digestive problems, such as GERD (Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease)