Lecture 1 - RH Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 1 - RH Deck (20):
1

What is bioinformatics?

Bioinformatics is the analysis and conceptualisation of complex biological information and this is done mostly via computers.

2

What are the 3 areas of bioinformatics?

1 - Databases (Store and manage large datasets)

2 - Algorithms (Determine relationship between members of dataset)

3 - Analysis tools

3

Why are computers necessary in bioinformatics?

Volume of data is large

Many tasks are highly repetitive

4

Why is there so much data in databases nowadays?

Lots of improved sequencing methods and genome projects as well as the therapeutic potential that was realised.

5

What were the first organisms to be sequenced?

1995 - Bacteria

1997 - Yeast

1998 - Worm

2004 - Human

6

What can be done with genetic information?

Genes can be found and used to predict protein sequences

Relationships can be analysed between genes

Analyse evolutionary relationships

Predict the proteome of an organism

7

What is the ultimate goal of bioinformatics?

To predict structure of a protein from the primary sequence. This is not yet possible

8

How can protein domains and motifs be predicted?

Using the sequence

9

How is the protein structure solved?

Crystallography

10

How can related structures be modelled?

Comparison to solved structures

11

How are ligands assessed?

In silico

12

What does in silico mean?

conducted or produced by means of computer modeling or computer simulation.

13

How are databases updated? How is this different to the past?

In the past a CD-ROM was sent to institutions to update nucleic acid databases. This has changed now to the use of the internet.

14

What are some nucleotide databases to be considered?

NCBI

DDBJ (Japan)

EMBL

15

What are some protein databases to be considered?

SwissProt

PDD (3D structure)

16

What is the ENTREZ browser?

A browser used to interrogate text. It can be used to find both literature and sequences

17

Where do protein sequences in databases come from?

Most sequences in protein databases are derived from nucleotide sequences

18

How are open reading frames located?

Using an ORF finder

19

What does BLAST stand for?

Basic Local Alignment Search Tool

20

What is the type of tool used to find restriction enzyme cutting locations?

A cutter tool