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Flashcards in Lecture 10 Deck (29):
1

Zona glomerulosa secretory products:

Mineralocorticoids. Mainly aldosterone.

2

Zone fasciculata secretory products:

Glucocorticoids. Mainly cortisol.

3

Zone reticularis secretory products:

Androgens.

4

Size of adrenal glands:

4g each

5

Secretory products of adrenal medulla: %s

Chromaffin cells secrete E (80%) and NE (10%)

6

Cortisol: importance in humans, half life

Primary glucocorticoid in humans.
Half-life of 70-90 minutes.

7

Transport of cortisol:

90% bound to corticosteroid-binding globulin
7% bound to albumin
3-4% free

8

What tissues contain glucocorticoid receptors?

All nucleated tissues!

9

Cortisol's glucose increasing activity:

Enhance protein breakdown to provide liver with AAs to build into glucose and glycogen.
Increase lipolysis and allow additional glycerol into the liver.

10

Cortisol during starvation:

Essential! Can make glucose from different routes.

11

Anti-inflammatory activity of cortisol:

Enhance lipocortin and annexin -> inhibit PLA -> inhibit arachidonic acid and its inflammatory babies.
Reduces T-lymphocytes.
Inhibits histamine release and reduces releasers.

12

Who all does cortisol hate?

Arachidonic acid, cytokines, interleukin-2, T-lymphocytes, histamine, bradykinin, serotonin, eosinophils, basophils

13

Cortisol and vascular system:

Optimizes responsiveness to catecholamines. Maintains normal blood pressure in arterioles.

14

Cushing syndrome:

Caused by excess cortisol.
Symptoms: truncal adiposity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, loss of subcutaneous adipose and connective tissue in extremities, loss of bone mineral, muscle weakness/wasting

15

Adison's syndrome:

Caused by insufficient cortisol.
Symptoms: chronic adrenal insufficiency, hypocortisolism.

16

Aldosterone: what is it made of? half-life?

Made from LDLs.
Half-life of 15-20 minutes.

17

Transport of aldosterone:

Albumin.

18

Effects of aldosterone:

Control salt/water retention.

19

Systems for stimulating aldosterone secretion:

Renin-angiotensin system
ACTH system
Potassium system

20

ACE-inhibiting drugs:

Angiotensin Converting Enzyme turns angiotensin I into angiotensin II, which stimulates aldosterone secretion.

21

Conn syndrome:

Hyperaldosteronism. Tumour of the zona glomerulosa.

22

Aldosterone and heart health:

Aldosterone increases fibrosis in myocardium and blood vessel walls.

23

Locations of adrenergic receptor types:
alpha 1, alpha 2, beta 1, beta 2, beta 3

Alpha 1: most sympathetic target cells
Alpha 2: digestive system
Beta 1: heart
Beta 2: skeletal muscle, vascular and bronchial smooth muscle
Beta 3: adipose tissue, heart and skeletal muscle

24

Adrenergic receptor affinity for NE/E:

Alphas both like NE better.
Beta 1 likes them equally.
Beta 2 only likes E.
Beta 3 doesn't like anyone.

25

Which adrenergic receptors have excitatory response? inhibitory?

Excitatory: odd numbers.
Inhibitory: even numbers.

26

Degradation of circulating catecholamines:

Catecholamine-O-methyltransferase and monoamine oxidase break them down Real Fast.

27

Hyp pit adrenocortical axis:

Corticotropin-releasing hormone from hyp -> ACTH from ant pit corticotrophs -> synthesis and secretion of cortisol.
AC pathway.

28

Regulators of ACTH:

Mainly CRH, slightly vasopressin.

29

POMC:

Pro-opiomelanocortin. Precursor for ACTH and a bunch of other things.