Lecture 10 Arterial and Venous Systems and Lymphatics Flashcards Preview

Whitney - Physiology Test 2 > Lecture 10 Arterial and Venous Systems and Lymphatics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 10 Arterial and Venous Systems and Lymphatics Deck (55)
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1

What is the equation for Vascular Distensibility?

Vascular distensibility = Increase in volume/(increase in pressure x Original Pressure)

2

Which of the following factors affect(s) pulse pressure?
a. Vascular Elastance
b. Arterial Compliance
c. Stroke Volume
d. all of the above
c. B and C only

c. B and C only

3

Which of the following is the most important means for the exchange of substances between the blood and the interstitial fluid?
a. Blood hydrostatic pressure
b. Capillary oncotic pressure
c. Diffusion
d. Interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure
e. Osmosis

c. Diffusion

4

The least amount of damping of the pressure pulses would occur in which of the following components of the circulatory system?
a. Femoral Artery
b. Arterioles
c. Capillaries
d. Venules

a. Femoral Artery

5

Distensibility in Arteries vs. Veins

Veins are about 8 times more distensible than arteries

6

Distensibility in pulmonary veins vs. systemic veins

Distensibilities are about the same

7

Distensibility in pulmonary arteries vs. systemic arteries

Pulmonary artery distensibilities are about 6 times that of systemic arteries

8

What describes the distensibility of BVs?

Capacitance

9

Capacitance is _______ (Directly/Indirectly) proportional to elastance

Indirectly

10

Compliance is equal to ?

Distensibility x Volume

11

Capacitance is ______ proportional to volume and ______ proportional to pressure

directly, inversely

12

What does capacitance describe?

It describes how volume changes in response to a change in pressure

13

Where is capacitance the greatest? Veins or arteries?

Veins

14

The greater the amount of elastic tissue in a blood vessel:

The higher the elastance
The lower the compliance

15

Define Compliance

Measure of the ease with which a hollow viscus may be distended
The volume change resulting from the application of a unit pressure differential between the inside and outside of the viscus;

16

Compliance is the ______ of elastance

Reciprocal

17

Vascular Compliance

Total quantity of blood that can be stored in a given portion of the circulatory system

18

What is elastance a measure of?

Measure of the tendency of a hollow viscus to recoil toward its original dimensions upon removal of a distending or collapsing force

19

Describe the Volume Pressure curves for both arterial and venous systems

In the arterial system, volume does not have to change much to affect the pressure.
In the venous system, a large change in volume can have little affect on the pressure

20

What is Pulse Pressure?

Difference in systolic and diastolic pressure
Stroke Volume/Arterial Compliance

21

What factors affect pulse pressure?

Stroke volume output of the heart
Compliance of the arterial tree

22

Describe how stroke volume output affects pulse pressure

Most important determinant of pulse pressure
Diastolic pressure remains unchanged during ventricular systole; pulse pressure increases to the same extent as the systolic pressure

23

Describe how compliance of the arterial tree affects pulse pressure

Decrease in compliance (capacitance) results in an increase in pulse pressure

24

Name conditions causing abnormal contours of the pressure pulse wave

Aortic Valve stenosis
Atherosclerosis
Patent ductus arteriosus
Aortic regurgitation

25

Describe how aortic valve stenosis affects pulse pressure wave

Diameter of the aortic valve opening is reduced sig., & aortic pressure is decreased sig.
Blood flow through aortic valve is diminished

26

Describe how patent ductus arteriosus affects pulse pressure wave

Half or more of cardiac output flows back into pulmonary artery & lung BVs
Diastolic pressure falls very low before next heartbeat

27

Describe how aortic regurgitation affects pulse pressure wave

Aortic valve is absent or will not close completely
Aortic pressure may fall all the way to 0 between heartbeats

28

Why is the mean blood pressure closer to the diastolic than the systolic?

Because about 60% of the cardiac cycle is spent in diastole and 40% in systole

29

Define mean arterial pressure

Average arterial pressure with respect to time
*B/c more of the cardiac cycle is pent in diastole than in systole, it is NOT a simple average

30

What is the equation for mean arterial pressure?

Mean arterial pressure = diastolic pressure + 1/3 pulse pressure