Flashcards in lecture 10- blood diseases Deck (17):
what is Leukopenia?
A low white blood cell count that is normally associated with low neutrophil levels (neutropenia).
What is agranulocytosis?
A severe deficiency in neutrophils to the extent that you are prone to bacterial and viral infections.
What causes leukopenia?
Stem cell suppression, chemotherapy and inherited genetic defects.
What is Leukocytosis?
a high white blood cell count in the blood, usually a sign of infection/inflammation.
What can initiate or trigger leukocytosis?
Sudden release of high amounts of white blood cell progenitors from the bone marrow.
What is lymphadenitis?
It is the swelling of lymph nodes in the armpit, neck and tonsils in response to infection in the area.
What is acute leukemia?
It is when there are too many abnormal white blood cell progenitors in the blood.
What causes acute leukemia?
Gene mutations within the white blood cell progenitor that results in abnormal proteins being produced. Cell differentiation is blocked, but self renewal and growth are promoted. Radiation can also mutate the cell's DNA.
What kind of pathogen can cause leukemia?
Viruses- there are certain viruses that can enter a progenitor cell and alter its DNA. The virus inhibits the p53 tumour suppressant gene.
What is acute lymphoblastic leukemia? or ALL?
This is when there are too many lymphoblasts in the blood. Lymphoblasts are the B-cell and T-cell progenitors. In the case of ALL, they are mainly B-cell progenitors.
What causes acute lymphoblastic leukemia?
Gene mutations- not just one, but many. The mutations all cause poor expression of the transcription factors for the B-cell progenitors.
What is multiple myeloma?
It is a cancer of the plasma cells. This results in abnormal and limited antibody production (only one type of antibody made).
What causes multiple myeloma?
One abnormal plasma cell doesn't differentiate. Instead, it keeps replicating itself.
What is the main pathological indicator of multiple myeloma?
The plasma cells are responsible for activating osteoclasts. When there are too many plasma cells, too many osteoclasts are activated and the bones are degraded more than rebuilt.
What is anaplastic large-cell lymphoma?
It is the cancer of the T-cells. There is a mutation in the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene that causes excessive t-cell proliferation.
What is Hodgkin lymphoma?
It is a cancer of the white blood cells, but this time it originates in one lymph node and then spreads to the rest of the body.