Flashcards in lecture 12- immune system induced diseases 2 Deck (13):
What is immunological tolerance?
It refers to the immune system's recognition of self-tissue as safe and harmless.
How do T-cells get taught to recognise self-tissue as non hazardous?
the process occurs in the Thymus, when the t-cells are maturing. T-cells with high affinity and low affinity are deleted. Cells with intermediate affinity are allowed into the body.
what is the difference between central and peripheral tolerance?
Central tolerance occurs within immune organs like the thymus, during the cell's maturation.
Peripheral tolerance occurs out in the body, and involves T-reg cells muting, ignoring or deleting self-reactive t-cells.
Do B-cells undergo tolerance?
Yes, but theirs occurs in the bone marrow where they mature. Self reactive B-cells can also be muted, ignored or deleted.
What is autoimmunity?
It is an immune response against self-antigens.
What is molecular mimicry?
It is when antibodies produced against a microbe/foreign antigen would also match the antibodies for self-antigens. Thus, the antibodies attack both the microbe and the bodily tissue.
what is type 1 diabetes and how is it an autoimmune disease?
Type 1 diabetes is when the body produces antibodies to attack the beta cells of the pancreas. The beta cells produce insulin, and their destruction leads to diabetes.
What is Latent Autoimmune diabetes in Adults?
It is basically a late onset of type 1 diabetes. This is because normally, type 1 diabetes occurs during childhood.
What actually happens to the islet cells in diabetes?
The CD4+ and CD8+ T cells infiltrate the islet cells, causing inflammation and cell death.
What is systemic lupus erythmatosus?
It is basically a systemic chronic inflammatory response to all the self-antigens of the body.
What autoantibodies are unique to SLE, that can act as a marker for disease?
During SLE, the immune system creates antibodies against the nucleus of cells. This is used as a marker for disease.
What can cause Systemic lupus erythmatosus?
There is a genetic basis for it, as well as external triggers. Exposure to radiation is a major trigger for SLE.