Lecture 12 - Respiratory responses to exercise Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 12 - Respiratory responses to exercise Deck (20):
1

Breathing frequency and tidal volume _____ during exercise

increase

2

What are the major functions of the respiratory system during exercise?

Maintain arterial O2 saturation

CO2 removal

Acid-Base balance

Fluid and temperature balance

3

VO2 is primarily determined by ..

exercise intensity

4

Most of the increase in ventilation, from incremental exercise, is from...

the increase in CO2 production in aerobic metabolism

5

What the main chemical controllers of respiration?

CO2

H+

Oxygen levels

6

Hyperventilation will do what to PCO2?

decrease

7

Explain Ventilatory drift

Breathing more often, resp muscles need more oxygen that this contributes to an increase in VO2

8

Alveolar PO2 is about...

100mmHg

9

Alveolar PCO2 is about..

46 mmHg

10

During exercise your mixed venous PO2 will be lower (about 25mmHg). The incerase in HR will mean the transit time through the gas exchange aveolar will decrease.

Is the diffusion gradient affected in healthy individuals?

What about at high altitudes?

not really - Arterial PO2 is well maintained even in high levels of exercise

If you're at altitude - the diffusion gradient is much less. The inspired Oxygen is not high enough. Harder to exercise.

11

Is the low transit time a problem for really well trained individuals with a high CO?

Can be - there may not time for full equilibration.

Lungs don't adapt to exercise training. Lung volume is just due to body size - they don't get bigger

12

What is exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia?

difference between the alveolar O2 and arterial O2 due to DIFFUSION LIMITATION (same lung morphology but increase cardiac output = a mismatch)

could also be expiratory flow limitations at high levels of ventilation.
Could also be a slight shift in the O2 dissociation curve so it's harder for the haem to load up with oxygen.

13

Respiratory muscles are ____ and can fatigue

voluntary

14

Diaphragm fatigue can limit performance as it is...

important to maintain arterial saturation.

can load it with intense exercise and 'train'to reduce fatigue

15

Respiratory muscle work may increase to as much as __% VO2 and CO during strenuous exercise

15% VO2 and CO


16

How is the diaphragm blood flow maintained at high intensities?

results in reduced active muscle blood flow due to sympathetically mediated vasocontriction arising from respiratory muscle chemoflexors

type 3/4 afferent fibres - tell brain that more oxygen is needed at diaphragm.

17

How is ventilation controlled

group of respiratory neurons in the hindbrain.

Subject to cortical control (higher centres)

Feedback - central chemoreceptors and peripheral chemoreceptors

stretch receptors in the lung

type 3/4 afferents in limb and diaphragm muscles

18

What are the major factors driving ventilation during exercise?

Motor cortical activation - central command

the limb skeletal muscles - Muscle afferents (spindles, type 3/4 afferents) sending signals to the brain

CO2 flux to the lung - remember PCO2 is maintained

Increased K+, H+, lactate - drives the hyperventilation of intense exercise

Elevated catecholamines and temperature

No role for O2 - no hypoxic drive for ventilation during exercise

19

What are the adaptations from untrained - trained individuals

right-shift in the ventilation curve - ventilation is lower in the trained individual, along with lactate curve]

There's a lower K+ response - after training your muscles there are more Na/K pumps so the K concentration is able to be protected better. --> lower arterial K+





20

Why is ventilation lower following training?

reduced blood lactate / H+

Lower plasma K+

Lower plasma catecholamines

reduced activation of muscle afferents?

reduced central drive? The exercise is more relaxed

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