Flashcards in Lecture 12 - Respiratory responses to exercise Deck (20):
Breathing frequency and tidal volume _____ during exercise
What are the major functions of the respiratory system during exercise?
Maintain arterial O2 saturation
Fluid and temperature balance
VO2 is primarily determined by ..
Most of the increase in ventilation, from incremental exercise, is from...
the increase in CO2 production in aerobic metabolism
What the main chemical controllers of respiration?
Hyperventilation will do what to PCO2?
Explain Ventilatory drift
Breathing more often, resp muscles need more oxygen that this contributes to an increase in VO2
Alveolar PO2 is about...
Alveolar PCO2 is about..
During exercise your mixed venous PO2 will be lower (about 25mmHg). The incerase in HR will mean the transit time through the gas exchange aveolar will decrease.
Is the diffusion gradient affected in healthy individuals?
What about at high altitudes?
not really - Arterial PO2 is well maintained even in high levels of exercise
If you're at altitude - the diffusion gradient is much less. The inspired Oxygen is not high enough. Harder to exercise.
Is the low transit time a problem for really well trained individuals with a high CO?
Can be - there may not time for full equilibration.
Lungs don't adapt to exercise training. Lung volume is just due to body size - they don't get bigger
What is exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia?
difference between the alveolar O2 and arterial O2 due to DIFFUSION LIMITATION (same lung morphology but increase cardiac output = a mismatch)
could also be expiratory flow limitations at high levels of ventilation.
Could also be a slight shift in the O2 dissociation curve so it's harder for the haem to load up with oxygen.
Respiratory muscles are ____ and can fatigue
Diaphragm fatigue can limit performance as it is...
important to maintain arterial saturation.
can load it with intense exercise and 'train'to reduce fatigue
Respiratory muscle work may increase to as much as __% VO2 and CO during strenuous exercise
15% VO2 and CO
How is the diaphragm blood flow maintained at high intensities?
results in reduced active muscle blood flow due to sympathetically mediated vasocontriction arising from respiratory muscle chemoflexors
type 3/4 afferent fibres - tell brain that more oxygen is needed at diaphragm.
How is ventilation controlled
group of respiratory neurons in the hindbrain.
Subject to cortical control (higher centres)
Feedback - central chemoreceptors and peripheral chemoreceptors
stretch receptors in the lung
type 3/4 afferents in limb and diaphragm muscles
What are the major factors driving ventilation during exercise?
Motor cortical activation - central command
the limb skeletal muscles - Muscle afferents (spindles, type 3/4 afferents) sending signals to the brain
CO2 flux to the lung - remember PCO2 is maintained
Increased K+, H+, lactate - drives the hyperventilation of intense exercise
Elevated catecholamines and temperature
No role for O2 - no hypoxic drive for ventilation during exercise
What are the adaptations from untrained - trained individuals
right-shift in the ventilation curve - ventilation is lower in the trained individual, along with lactate curve]
There's a lower K+ response - after training your muscles there are more Na/K pumps so the K concentration is able to be protected better. --> lower arterial K+