Flashcards in Lecture 13 - Drugs of Abuse Deck (119)
Define recreational drug use
-use of a pharmacologically active agent (drug) for purposes other than its intended medicinal or other purpose
-use of a substance/drug to get high or be in an altered mental state
List some recreational drug classes
Tolerance is a state at which there is no longer the desired response to the drug
Describe the Progressive model
To achieve the desired response, more drug is required
Tolerance typically lost in?
What is reverse tolerance?
sensitization - can resist for years (ex. cocaine and amphetamines)
Functional tolerance also referred to as?
Describe functional tolerance
-change in the post synapses of the CNS
-stimulatory and inhibitory pathways
-exposure to psychoactive drugs (could also means hormones)
-desensitization of receptors (short)
-down regulation receptors/signaling pathways (long)
List the post-synapse receptors
Metabolic tolerance is also referred to as?
What is metabolic tolerance?
-adaptation of the metabolic "machinery" to repeated exposure to a drug
-similar to drug resistance mechanisms
-CYP P450 system
-cross tolerance: drugs metabolized similarly
What is cross tolerance?
drugs metabolized similarly
What is withdrawal?
-a maladaptive behavioural change, with physiological and cognitive concomitants, that occurs when blood or tissue concentrations of a substance decline in an individual who had maintained prolonged heavy use of the substance
What happens after a person develops the unpleasant withdrawal symptoms?
The person is likely to take the substance to relieve or to avoid those symptoms
There are physiological signs available of withdrawal symptoms for?
There are less obvious signs available of withdrawal symptoms for?
The state at which the user functions normally only when taking the drug
How do withdrawal symptoms and dependence work?
Withdrawal symptoms re-enforce dependence and are a response of the body to less drug
withdrawl of alcohol from an alcoholic - life threatening
repeated crack cocaine use - drug seeking habits in spite of risks, repeated dosing related to keep the high
-it implies addiction and pertains to desirable properties or the high
Affects on _____ pathways though to play a role in crave to use the drug again
What is addiction characterized by?
-Inability to consistently abstain
-Impairment in behavioural control
-Cravings or increased "hunger" for drugs or rewarding experiences
-Diminished recognition of significant problems with one's behaviours and interpersonal relationships
-A dysfunctional emotional response
Good data in Canada on recreational drug use is _____
What do you need to consider when discussing recreational use?
-recreational drug use is country-dependent
-source of drug (prescription versus street market)
-scheduled drugs (legal versus illegal highs)
Plant Extracts Opiates?
Why are opioids used recreationally?
Euphoric affect associated with recreational use