Lecture 13 - Drugs of Abuse Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 13 - Drugs of Abuse Deck (119)
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1

Define recreational drug use

-use of a pharmacologically active agent (drug) for purposes other than its intended medicinal or other purpose
-use of a substance/drug to get high or be in an altered mental state

2

List some recreational drug classes

Alcohols
Cannabinoids
Cocaine
Amphetamine-like
Opioids
Sedative hypnotics
Hallucinogens
Antidepressants
Antipsychotics
Inhalants
GHB, DMMA

3

Define tolerance

Tolerance is a state at which there is no longer the desired response to the drug

4

Describe the Progressive model

To achieve the desired response, more drug is required

5

Tolerance typically lost in?

10-14 days

6

What is reverse tolerance?

sensitization - can resist for years (ex. cocaine and amphetamines)

7

Functional tolerance also referred to as?

pharmacodynamic tolerance

8

Describe functional tolerance

-change in the post synapses of the CNS
-stimulatory and inhibitory pathways
-exposure to psychoactive drugs (could also means hormones)
-desensitization of receptors (short)
-down regulation receptors/signaling pathways (long)
-cross tolerance

9

List the post-synapse receptors

G-protein
Ionotropic
Extrasynaptic proteins

10

Metabolic tolerance is also referred to as?

pharmacokinetic tolerance

11

What is metabolic tolerance?

-adaptation of the metabolic "machinery" to repeated exposure to a drug
-similar to drug resistance mechanisms
-enzyme induction
-drug metabolism:
-CYP P450 system
-Glucuronidation
-cross tolerance: drugs metabolized similarly

12

What is cross tolerance?

drugs metabolized similarly

13

What is withdrawal?

-a maladaptive behavioural change, with physiological and cognitive concomitants, that occurs when blood or tissue concentrations of a substance decline in an individual who had maintained prolonged heavy use of the substance

14

What happens after a person develops the unpleasant withdrawal symptoms?

The person is likely to take the substance to relieve or to avoid those symptoms

15

There are physiological signs available of withdrawal symptoms for?

alcohol
hypnotics
anxiolytics
opioids
sedatives

16

There are less obvious signs available of withdrawal symptoms for?

amphetamines
nicotine
cocaine
cannabis

17

Define dependence

The state at which the user functions normally only when taking the drug

18

How do withdrawal symptoms and dependence work?

Withdrawal symptoms re-enforce dependence and are a response of the body to less drug

19

Physiological dependence

withdrawl of alcohol from an alcoholic - life threatening

20

Psychological dependence

repeated crack cocaine use - drug seeking habits in spite of risks, repeated dosing related to keep the high
-it implies addiction and pertains to desirable properties or the high

21

Affects on _____ pathways though to play a role in crave to use the drug again

dopaminergic

22

What is addiction characterized by?

-Inability to consistently abstain
-Impairment in behavioural control
-Cravings or increased "hunger" for drugs or rewarding experiences
-Diminished recognition of significant problems with one's behaviours and interpersonal relationships
-A dysfunctional emotional response

23

Good data in Canada on recreational drug use is _____

lacking

24

What do you need to consider when discussing recreational use?

-recreational drug use is country-dependent
-rationalizing risk
-source of drug (prescription versus street market)
-scheduled drugs (legal versus illegal highs)

25

Synthetic opioids?

Sufentanyl
Carfentanil
Fentanyl

26

Semi-synthetic opioids?

Heroin

27

Plant Extracts Opiates?

Opioids
Morphine

28

Endogenous opioids?

Enkephalins
Endorphins
Dynorphins (peptides)

29

Why are opioids used recreationally?

Euphoric affect associated with recreational use

30

Examples of opioids

Morphine
Heroin
Codeine
Dextromethorphan
Oxycodone
Hydromorphone
Fentanyl
Meperidine