Lecture 13 - Microbe-Plant Interactions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 13 - Microbe-Plant Interactions Deck (67)
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1

What are the 2 types of microbe-plant associations that plants benefit from?

mutualistic and commensalism

2

What are some examples of mutualistic activities between plant-microbe interactions?

they are highly specialized such as fungal interaction with root system or bacteria producing nodules

3

Where do most plant-microbe interactions occur?

in the rhizosphere

4

What is a rhizosphere?

soil bits still attached to plant's roots

5

What are the 3 different groups of microbes found in the rhizosphere?

beneficial, commensal, and pathogenic

6

How does a beneficial microbe interact with the plant within the rhizosphere?

mutualistic interaction, it uses nutrients released from plant roots

7

How does a commensal microbe interact with the plant within the rhizosphere?

plant doesn't benefit (researchers claim) but organism benefits from released nutrients of plant

8

How does a pathogenic microbe interact with the plant within the rhizosphere?

benefits from released nutrients of plant but has negative affect on plant, commensal and/or beneficial microbes

9

What type of interaction is between the water fern and cyanobacteria? (positive or negative?

positive

10

How can water ferns be used as a biofertilizer?

considered as "green manure" because it is nitrogen rich

11

Explain the interaction between water ferns and cyanobacteria. Who benefits what?

cyanobacteria grow in the cavities/holes on water fern leaves as well as provides it nutrients and sugars IN TURN cyanobacteria fixes N2 to NH3 for water fern

12

What are mycorrhizae? What type of interaction is this?

relationship between fungus and root and are endo- or ectomycorrhizae | mutualistic interaction

13

Which is more prevalent in the rhizosphere? Gram+ or Gram–

gram–

14

What are the 3 benefits of mycorrhizae?

make plants capable of survival in low-nutrient soils, higher plant growth rates, more disease-resistance

15

What are ectomycorrhizae?

fungus is associated with roots which are shorter, thicker, and more branched | no breaking of root cells

16

What are the structures that develop the ectomycorrhizae?

Hartig nets and fungal sheath

17

What are Hartig nets?

where the fungus has gone in and surrounds root cells

18

What are fungal sheaths?

what surrounds the whole root

19

Explain the ectomycorrhizae interaction. Who benefits what?

fungus provides essential nutrients/minerals for plant IN TURN plant provides sugars for fungus

20

Where are ectomycorrhizae commonly seen in (type of plants)?

trees

21

What are endomycorrhizae?

fungus penetrates root cells via arbuscules

22

What are arbuscules?

fungal structures used to uptake nutrients

23

What is the benefit of the arbuscule penetration of root cells?

enhanced root uptake of minerals

24

Explain the endomycorrhizal interaction. Who benefits what?

endomycorrhizal fungus provides plant with nutrients/minerals and enhances uptake IN TURN plant provides sugars for fungus

25

Which mycorrhizae is more common, endo- or ecto-?

endomycorrhizae

26

What are hyphae?

branching filaments of fungal cells

27

Which organisms are the only ones that contain nitrogen fixation genes?

prokaryotes (ONLY)

28

What is nitrogen fixation?

taking nitrogen from the atmosphere and fixing it into ammonia

29

Within mutualistic plant-bacteria interactions, what does the plant usually provide?

carbon and energy sources

30

Within mutualistic plant-bacteria interactions, what do the bacteria usually provide?

fix nitrogen for amino acid production within plants