Flashcards in Lecture 13 - Population Parameters and Demographics Deck (21)
A group of organisms of the same species occupying a particular space at a particular time.
“demes” which are groups of interbreeding organisms within that much larger population.
Who defines boundaries of populations?
Boundaries of populations are established by ecologists. Both in spatial and temporal extent.
What's the difference between unitary and modular individuals?
unitary (ex: humans,fish, deer, mouse: zygote develops into an adult, adult is genetically distinct)'
modular individuals (zygote gives rise to an adult that can make more modules. Ex: plants, corals, etc. Clonal, not genetically distinct)
Define population size
measure of # of individuals per unit area.
Name 2 factors needed to be considered when deciding on the technique to calculate population density
size and how mobile
What size of animals tend to be more abundant?
Small animals tend to be more abundant
Name two techniques to calculate absolute size of populations. What kind of organisms are each best suited for?
1. Quadrat: For sessile organisms (don’t move, for plants and many invertebrates)
Sampling area of any shape.
* Randomly positioned
* Accurate count
2. Capture-recapture method (mobile animals)
Explain how the capture recapture method works. What assumption do we need to make?
Capture → mark (Marked individuals need to be homogeneously distributed in their environment for this method to work.) → release → recapture
Ratio of marked individuals of recapture is the ratio of marked/unmarked ratio in the population, so can find the total number of individuals in population.
Assumes that there are no individuals immigrating or emigrating → closed population.
How do ecologists study chance in size of populations?
To study changes in size , ecologists use demographics techniques (quantitative methods to assess the change in population size due to mortality(survivorship) and natality, immigration and emigration.
What's a life table? Define two types.
Life table : a table that records mortality of a population.
Life tables help to understand population growthi.e. the schedule of birth and dea
Cohort table: follows all the individuals born at the same time from birth to death
Static table: is snapshot of a population over a short time interval. The individuals are of different ages.
Data is of females or individuals that produce seeds
For a cohort life table, give the following formulas:
1. Proportion surviving at start of age interval x
2. # dying within age interval [x to x+1]
3. Rate of mortality
Name 3 categories of patterns of survivor-ship. Are these populations hybrid or non hybrid usually?
1. High juvenile survivorship (ex: humans)
2. Constant rates of survival → probability of dying is constant regardless of your age. (ex: birds, rodents)
3. Low juvenile survivorship (Ex: fishes, sea turtles)
* populations are often a hybrid of these 3 types.
2 reasons why ecologists construct life tables.
1. Estimate how population will change
2. Useful when information cannot be readily gathered - long lived slow growing populations.
Define Capacity for increase.
Survivorship AND Fertility
Define Net reproduction rate R0, how it's measured and 3 defining values.
bx = # female offspring per female aged x per 5-year period
R0 = # daughters produced/female during lifetime = Sum(x=0->inf) lx*bx
R0 = 1 → population is constant because 1 female is only reproducing another female
R0> 1 → growth
R0< 1 → decline
1. Define Idealized populations by Lokta.
2. What age group does geometric growth dictate?
1. Population that have a fixed schedule of natality & mortality increase in a geometric way.
dN/dt=rN → integrated form Nt=N0e^(rt)where r is the intrinsic capacity for increase
2. Geometric growth dictates a fixed and unchanging age distribution, the stable age distribution.
1. In the idealized populations formula (Lokta) what does r define?
2. What does it depend on?
3. What are 3 factors that influence r?
4. Name 3 reasons to measure r.
r allows us to calculate instantaneous changes in population size for time scale less than a generation.
r = ln(R0)/G = per capita birth rate - per capita death rate
r=0 no change in population
r>0 population increasing
r<0 population decreasing
2. Depends on the environment. For ex: when too much moisture in the air, beetles produce a lot of offspring
3. Factors influencing r:
age at first reproduction,
# of progeny per reproductive event,
# of reproductive event
4. Reasons to measure r:
sensitive to environmental change that ecologists may not detect,
predict population density
Why do ecologists construct life tables?
Estimate how population will change –decline (biodiversity loss)–gain (harvest for human use)
Useful when information cannot be readily gathered –long lived slow growing populations (e.g. Sequoia, Elephants
how do ecologists construct life tables?
Keep track of FEMALES or, in plants, the individuals that produce seeds