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What is the property of HLA/b/c class 1?

• Found on virtually
all nucleated cells.
• Co-dominant.
• Polymorphic.
• Present peptides
to CD8 T cells.


What is the property of HLA-DP/ DQ/ DR?

• Found on B cells and
specialised APCs.
• Co-dominant.
• Polymorphic.
• Present peptides
to CD4 T cells.


describe cytokines?

• Low molecular weight glycoproteins
• Secreted by CD4 T cells and other cells
• Regulate immune and inflammatory response:
- quality
- amplitude
- duration
• Often called interleukins (between leukocytes)
• Produced transiently and locally
(paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine)
• Multiple, overlapping actions depend on:
• concentration
• presence of other cytokines
• type of receptive cell
• history of receptive cell
• Immune ‘hormones’ but also affect and
produced by other systems


what are the innate responses of cytokines?

• Pro-inflammatory (e.g. interleukin-1).
• Important early in infections.
• Limit tissue damage.
• Initiate adaptive immune mechanisms.
• Affect body temperature.
• Alter sleep patterns.


what are the Adaptive Response Cytokines?

• Control B cell activation
(e.g. interleukin-4).
• Control cytotoxic T cell
(e.g. interferon-γ)


what do Chemotactic Cytokines do?

• Chemokines.
• Promote neutrophil
chemotaxis at sites
of inflammation
(e.g. interleukin-8)


what do Haematopoietic Cytokines do?

• Affect blood cell development
to produce cell types needed
in certain situations
• Neutrophils during infection
(e.g. G-CSF = Granulocyte
Colony-Stimulating Factor)


describe two types of adhesin molecules?

• Weak interactions
• Direct cell traffic around body
• A bit like velcro
• Strong cell-cell adhesion
• Hold cells in tissues together
• Hold lymphocytes together for activation


what are Co-stimulator Molecules?

• Pairs of surface molecules expressed
in cell-cell interactions.
• B7 on APC
• CD28 on T cells
• Expressed transiently.
• Modulate immune activation processes