Lecture 15+16 - Engineering Animals Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 15+16 - Engineering Animals Deck (9)
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1

When was new genetic material first directly introduced into a mouse embryo, and by whom?

1974, Jaenisch and Mintz

They found that when purified SV40 DNA was injected into the blastocoel cavity of mouse blastocysts, viral DNA sequences could be detected in somatic tissues of many of the resulting animals, suggesting that they had integrated into the genome of embryonic cells.

2

Define 'germline'.

A germ line is the sex cells (eggs and sperm) that are used by sexually reproducing organisms to pass on genes from generation to generation.

That is the cell line from gametes are derived.

3

What is a retrovirus?

A virus that is composed of ssRNA. Retroviruses have an enzyme, called reverse transcriptase, this allows them to transcribe their RNA into DNA after entering a host cell.

The retroviral DNA can then integrate into the chromosomal DNA of the host cell, to be expressed there. HIV is a retrovirus.

4

In 1976 what virus did Jaenisch introduce to the germ line of mouse embryos?

Moloney murine leukemia virus

In 1976, Jaenisch discovered that Moloney murine leukemia virus (a retrovirus) could be stably introduced into the germline by viral infection of preimplantation mouse embryos.

5

In 1980 Anderson and Cappechi reported what finding?

Microinjecting DNA into fibroblast cells led to the stable incorporation and expression of the injected transgene.

Microinjection: using a glass micropipette to inject a liquid substance at a microscopic level.

Fibroblast: a type of cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework (stroma) for animal tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing.

Transgene: a gene that has been transferred from one organism to another.

6

Who reported that microinjecting DNA into fibroblast cells led to the incorporation and expression of the injected transgene?

Anderson and Cappechi in 1980

7

In 1974, Jaenisch and Mintz made what discovery?

They directly introduced new genetic material into a mouse embryo.

They found that when purified SV40 DNA was injected into the blastocoel cavity of mouse blastocysts, viral DNA sequences could be detected in somatic tissues of many of the resulting animals, suggesting that they had integrated into the genome of embryonic cells.

8

Who was the first scientist to introduce a cloned gene into a mouse's somatic tissue?

Gordon, 1980

9

Gordon in 1980 was the first scientist to...

Gordon in 1980 introduce a cloned gene into a mouse's somatic tissues by pronuclear injection.