Flashcards in Lecture 15 Deck (38)
Aphasia is an impairment due to acquired and recent damage to the ___________.
Central Nervous System
Aphasia is an impairment of the ability to _______ and ______ language.
comprehend and formulate
Aphasia is a multimodality disorder represented by a variety of impairments in what 4 things?
oral expressive language
The disrupted language may be influenced by ________ or _______.
physiological inefficiency or impaired cognition
*can't be explained by dementia, sensory loss, or motor dysfunction
Aphasia is usually due to interrupted blood flow. T or F?
interrupted blood blow causes cell death and results in necrotic tissue which eventially liquifies and is removed by astroglial action.
A cerebrovascular accident (stroke) can be caused by?
occlusive mechanisms (such as arteriosclerosis, thrombus, or embolism) or hemorrahage, .
the thickening or hardening of the arterial wall is ....
accumulation of blood platelets on the arterial wall is...
the blockage of an artery by an arterial embolus...
rupture of a vessel in the brain...
dilated blood vessel, bursts at the weak point in the wall...
an abnormal connection bewteen veins and arteries that can lead to an aneurysm...
arteriovenous malformation (AVM)
A Neoplasm (tumor) can be either _____ or _____.
How does it affect speech, language and behaviors?
benign or malignant; it affects by pressing on structures in the brain or invading and damaging these structures
What are the 2 kinds of classification of aphasia?
expressive vs receptive
fluent vs nonfluent
Nonfluent, reduced verbal output, increased effort speaking, dysprosody, and agrammatism is what kind of aphasia?
Broca's aphasia; often co-occurs with apraxia of speech and has right sided limb weakness due to involvement of motor cortex
Lesions that cause Broca's aphasia occur in...
the frontal operculum extending to subcortical white matter and adjacent cortical regions of the frontal lobe
Fluent aphasia, speech is frequently paraphasic, characterized by significant difficulty with auditory comprehension, usually no significant motor involvement due to the posterior location of the lesion is what kind of aphasia?
Lesions that cause Wernicke's aphasia occur in....
posterior superior temporal gyrys and damage to supramarginal and angular gyrus
Fluent aphasia, disproportionaltely poor repetion given fluency of speech, frequent phonemic paraphasias, auditory comprehension is relatively good is what kind of aphasia?
Severe expressive and receptive aphasia, nonfluent, speech output may be limited to a few words or a recurrent word or nonword spoken w/ appropriate inflection is what kind of aphasia?
Transcotical aphasias: lesions are just outside or athe border of the ___________ and distribution of the middle cerebral artery.
Perisylvian langyage zones
What are the three kinds of transcortical aphasias?
transcortical motor, transcortical sensory and mixed transcortical aphasia.
All transcortical moto aphasias are characterized by very good ________.
Relatively good receptive and expressive abilities, word finding difficulty is main symtpom, fluent aphasia, lesions commonly in angular gyrus is what kind of aphasia?
Subcortical Aphasia's are common or uncommon? How do they occur?
Uncommon; can occure due to isolated thalamic and basal ganglia lesions.
Do individuals with aphasia typically have some degree of reading and writing difficulties?
Alexia without agraphia
-inability to read, but can still write
-other language areas are relatively intact
-lesions involve the posterior cerebral artery and damage to the left dominant occipital lobe and the slenium
Alexia with agraphia
-difficulty ready and writing
-more likely than alexia without agraphia that there may be mild aphasia
-lesions in the dominant left inferior parietal lobe usually involving angular gyrus
-difficulty comprehending figurative/nonliteral language
-difficulty generating and interpreting inferences
-discourse tends to be egocentric, off target, or disorganized
-aprosodia: difficulty comprehending or producing prosodic aspects of speech
Are all what kind of problems?
Common communication problems