Lecture 16: Skull Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 16: Skull Deck (71):
1

What is a chordate?

Animal/ human with a notochord

2

Where are the primary senses and the integration center (brain) concentrated in chordates

Front of the skull

3

What is the floor of the box called

chondrocranium

4

What does the bone of the chondrocranium develop from

a cartilagenous precursor

5

What different capsules are located in the chondrocranium

olfactory and optic capsules

6

What are the walls and roof of the box made of

dermal scales which developed into skin that eventually joins bone

7

What are the walls and roof of the box called

determatocranium

8

What bart of the skull does the notochord extend into

chondrocranium

9

What did the respiratory and feeding systems that attach to our skull evolve from

Gill arches (7 of them)

10

What composes the 1st gill arch

Upper and lower jaws, malleus, and incus

11

Is the upper jaw fused to the brain box

Yes

12

What are the malleus and incus a part of?

inner ear

13

How does the first gill arch attach to the brain box

cartilage attaches to the bottom of the brain box

14

What composes the 2nd gill arch

Middle ear bone, styloid process, stylohyoid ligament, and part of the hyoid bone

15

What composes the 3rd gill arch

Bony support for the tongue and hyoid

16

What do subsequent arches form

pharynx, larynx, and trachea

17

Modified gill arches that associate with the cranium form...

splanchnocranium

18

Which part of the skull has a lot of holes

chondrocranium

19

Which part of the skull consists of the jaw and face

Splanchnocranium

20

Where do vessels and nerve often emerge or enter into the skull

Foramina or between components of different origin

21

What is the internal coratid a. a branch of

common coratid a.

22

What does the internal coratid a. supply

brain, chondrocranium (including special senses)

23

What does the external coratid a supply

dermato- and splanchnocranium

24

What does CN V innervate (which gill arch)

first gill arch (jaw)

25

What does CN VII innervate (gill arch)

second gill arch (facial nerve)

26

What does CN IX innervate (gill arch)

3rd gill arch (hypoglossal)

27

What supplies the remaining 4 gill arches?

CN X (vagus)

28

Does CN V provide sensory and motor innervation to the upper and lower jaws

It only provides motor innervation to the lower jaw because you can not move the upper jaw

29

Where are the two frontal bones fused

At metopic suture

30

What do the frontal bones articulate with?

Nasals, sphenoids, zygomatics, parietals, lacrimals, ethmoids, and maxillaries

31

Where do the two nasal bones meet

internasal joint

32

What do the nasal bones articulate with

frontals and maxillaries

33

What bones form the orbits

lacrimals, ethmoids, greater and lesser wings of sphenoid

34

What bones articulate with the zygomatics

maxillae, sphenoids, frontals, and temporal

35

What are the sidewall bones of the nose?

Superior, middle, and inferior chonchae

36

What is another term for chin

mental protuberance

37

Pterigomaxillary fissure

Crack between the lateral pterigoid plates and the maxilla- place where n. and branch of external carotid artery exit.

38

The lateral pterygoid plates are a part of what bone?

Sphenoid

39

What attaches to the styloid process?

Ligament to the hyoid (2nd arch)

40

What are the functions of fontanelles

-Head to conform to shape of birth canal
-Clinical access to cerebrospinal fluid

41

Is the pterion junction a weak or strong joint?

Weak

42

Can you determine the rough age of a person based on how open/closed their sutures are

Yes more closed= older

43

What is bone growth in the skull determined by

brain size

44

Hydro and microcephaly

microcephally- small head (usually associated with small brain.

Hydrocephaly- Large head associated with large brain

45

Describe the bone arictecture in the skull

2 compact layers of bone with spongy bone in between

46

What is the spongy bone between the compact bone called?

Diploe

47

What are the names of the inner and outer layers of compact bone respectively

Inner and outer table

48

Diploic veins

veins that run in the diploe

49

Emissary veins

Penetrate the inner and outer tables to communicate with the diploes- Veins responsible for spreading infections throughout the head

50

In the splanchnocranium, structures are made of cartilage (Meckel's cartilage) and does not ossify, whats the exception to this?

The upper and lower jaws.

51

What is the neocortex and what protects it?

Part of the cerebral cortex concerned with sight and hearing- protected by lofts over orbits

52

What is the cribriform plate

A sieve in the ethmoid bone where CN I enters along with anterior and posterior ethmoidal arteries and nerves

53

What attaches to the crista galli

falx cerebri

54

How many CN enter the middle cranial fossa?

5

55

What CN go through the superior orbital issue?

CN III, IV, V1, and VI

56

What is CN V1

CN V has 3 Branches: V1- is the ophthalmic branch which is sensory only to the forehead and scalp

57

What CN goes through the optic foramen

CN II

58

What is the junction between the brain box and face

Superior orbital fissure

59

Location of the optic foramen

lesser sphenoid

60

What goes through the foramen rotundum

CN V2- sensory to the maxilla

61

What goes through the foramen ovale

CN V3- Sensory and motor to the mandible

62

What runs through the foramen lacerum

internal carotid a. and pathway for greater superficial petrosal nerves (taste for preganglionic parasympathetic fibers from CN VII)

63

What runs through the coratid canal

internal carotid a

64

What does the internal coratid a cupply

chondrocranium, brain, and special senses

65

What goes through the foramen spinosum

meningeal a.

66

What does the meningeal a supply

meninges and dermatocranium

67

What junction does the foramen spinosum lie in

edge of dreamt- and chondrocranium

68

How many cranial nerves pass through the posterior cranial fossa

6

69

What runs through the internal acoustic meatus

CN VII and VIII

70

What runs through the jugular foramen

CN IX, X, and XI and internal jugular v.

71

What runs through the hypoglossal canal

CN XII exits